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22 terms

Atoms, Elements, Periodic Table

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Hydrogen
This element does not match the properties of any other group so it stands alone. It is placed above group 1 but it is not part of that group. It is a very reactive, colorless, odorless gas at room temperature (1 outer level electron)
Group 1: Alkali Metals
These metals are extremely reactive and are never found in nature in their pure form. They are silver colored and shiny, their density is extremely low so that they are soft enough to be cut with a knife (1 outer level electron)
Group 2: Alkali earth metals
Slightly less reactive than alkali metals they are silver colored and more dense than alkali metals (2 outer level electrons)
Groups 3-12: Transition metals
These metals have a moderate range of reactivity and a wide range of properties. In general they are shiny and good conductors of hear and electricity, they also have higher densities and melting points than groups 1 and 2 (1/2 outer level electrons)
Lanthanides
These are transition metals that were taken out and placed at the bottom of the table so the table wouldn't be so wide. These are shiny and reactive.
Group 13: Boron Group
Contains one metalloid and 4 metals. reactive. aluminum is in this group and it is also the most abundant metal in the earths crust (3 outer level electrons)
Group 14: Carbon Group
Contains one nonmetal, two metalloids and 2 metals. varied reactivity (4 outer level electrons)
Group 15: Nitrogen Group
contains 2 nonmetals, 2 metalloids, and 2 metals. varied reactivity (5 outer level electrons)
Group 16: Oxygen Group
Contains 3 nonmetals 1 metalloid and 1 metal. reactive group (6 outer level electrons)
Group 17: Halogens
all nonmetals very reactive. poor conductors of heat and electricity tend to form salts with metals (7 outer level electrons)
Group 18: Noble gases
unreactive nonmetals. all are colorless, odorless, gases at room temp. all found in earths atmosphere in small amounts (8 outer level electrons)
Shells
The outer orbital that each element in a group has the same number of electrons in
Valence Electrons
The electrons in the outer shell
Atomic number
The number of protons and electrons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
the mass of the atom, the units to measure atomic mass is amu (atomic mass unit) only the protons and neutrons are significant in the mass since electrons are so much smaller than both of these parts
Protons and calculation
A positeve charge that is found within the nucleus of the atom. To calculate the number of this found in a certain element, you have to find the atomic number of the element because the atomic number is the amout of this that is in the element
Neutrons and calculation
A neutral charge that is found within the nucleus of the atom. to calculate this, you have to subtract the atomic mass and the atomic number
Electrons and calculation
A negitive charge orbits around the nucleus in different shells. to find the amount of this in the element you have to find the atomic number since this amount is the same as the atomic number found in the element
2, 8, 8
The amount of electrons in each shell
Nucleus
The center of an atom which is made up of neutrons and protons
Atoms
very tiny particles that are the building blocks for all matter
Actinides
These are transition metals that were taken out and placed at the bottom of the table so the table wouldn't be so wide. these are all radioactive and are therefore unstable. Elements 95 through 103 do not exist in nature (only labs)