Terms in this set (41)
declared himself first emperor of the sui dynasty. Lasted from 581 to 618. Their greatest accomplishment: completion of the grand canal. This connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang. Vital route between nothern cities and southern rice producing region of the Chang Delta. Thousands died building this as well as rebuilding the great wall, People turned against the Sui dynasty, over taxed and overworked, revolt in 618.
Tang dynasty ruled for nearly 300 years. 618 - 907. Tang Taizong began great achievements throughout his reign which lasted 626 to 649.
empress of the Korean Campaign, held real power while weak emperors sat on the throne, from about 660 till 690 when she assumed the title of emperor under Empress Wu, only woman to ever do so in China. (Chinese influence extended over Korea)
scholar officials who were chosen only through tough exams. exams were open to all men even commoners but only the wealthy. could afford the needed years of education. Also men with political connections could obtain high positions w/o exams. Despite all of this the system created an intelligent and capable governing class in China.
Tang lose power
crushing taxes in the mid 700s were raised in order to meet the rising costs of the government. Hardships brought on people and failed to cover the costs of military expansion and new building programs. the Tang struggled to control the vast empire they buiilt.
Battle of Talas
751, muslim armies soundly defeated the chinese, result: central asia passed out of chinese control and into foreign hands. 907 chinese rebels sacked and burned the Tang capital at Ch'ang-an and murdered the last Tang emperor over the power loss of their imperial government.
The song Dynasty Restores China
Fall of the tang dynasty: warlords divided China into seperate kingdoms. in 960, general Taizu reunited China then proclaimed himself the first Song emperor. Lasted 960 - 1279. China remained stable under his rule. Western lands in 751 were never regained, tried to buy peace with nothern enemies via tribute. which failed.
a coastal city, south of Chang Jiang was established as the new grand capital for the song(southern) 1127-1279. Saw rapid economy growth. Economic heartland of China.
Chinas population doubled to 100million. 10 cities with 1 million people each. most advance and populous.
printer that could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing.
The great Silk Roads
linked China to the West, Tang imperial armies guarded these. Chinda lost control over these routes during the long Tang decline. Chinese merchants relied increasingly on ocean trade. This called for advances in sailing technology. magnetic compass, etc.
a class of power well-to-do people. Attained their status through education and civil service positions rather than through land ownership
"pastoralists"- herded domesticated animals. Constantly on the move, searching for good pasture to feed their herds. Followed a pattern, did not wander.
always on horseback, depended on their herds for food, clothing and housing, diet of meat and mare's milk. Traveled in "clans" or kinship groups. Clans came together to attack a common enemy or raid their settled neighbors
Steppe Nomads and Settled Societies
dynamic lifestyle, settled peoples resulted in constant interaction between them. Peaceful trade was practiced. Nomads were accustomed to scarcity and hardship. Prided themselves in their toughness. they were tempted by the rich land and relative wealth of townspeople, and took what they wanted via force. Settled people constantly feared mongol raids.
RISE OF MONGOLS
mongols roamed the eastern steppe in loosely organized clans. Military and political genius united the Mongols into a force with one purpose of conquest. Genghis Khan.
around 1200, Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify all mongols under his leadership. Fought and accepted the title of Genghis Khang in 1206. or "universal ruler" of the mongol clans. le the Mongols for 21 years, conquering much of Asia, first goal being China. After invading the nothern Jin Empire in 1212, his attention turned to the Islamic region of west Mongolia. launched a campaign of terror across central asia. by 1225 Central Asia was under mongol control
Genghis khan death
dies in 1227 from illness, his successors continued to expand his empire, less than 50 years the mongols conquered territory from china to poland. largest unified land empire in history
sons and grandsons of Genghis continued his campaign of conquest. Armies under their leadership drove south, east and west out of inner Asian. Completed China conquest, invaded Korea.
Mongols as Rulers
Populations of cities were wiped out, Mongols destroyed ancient irrigation systems. over time mongols
mid 1200s to mid 1300s mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia. This period is sometimes called the PAX MONGOLICA. or "mongol peace" The mongols guaranteed safe travels for trade caravans, travelers and missionaries.
grandson of Genghis Khan assumed titled of Great Khan in 1260. Overwhelmed chinese in 1279, this began a new dynasty of the Yuan.
lasted less than a century until 1368 it was overthrown. IMPORTANT because: united china for the first time in 300 years. Opened china to greater foreign contacts and trade. lastly, Tolerated chinese culture and made few changes to the governments system. Also moved the capital from Mongolia to China.
failure to conquer japan
Kublai Khan tried to extend his rule to Japan, in 1274 and in 1281. sent huge fleets against japan. The "kamikaze" or "divine wind" swept all of the mongol and korean ships/fleet sent over to invade them.
mongol rule in china
Mongols realized mongol ways of brute strength and horseback could not govern sophisticated china. Kublai knew he needed non mongol officials to help him rule successfully.
Mongols and Chinese
Mongol rulers had little in common with chinese subjects, differences lead to mongols keeping their separate identity, lived apart from Chinese, obeyed different laws, etc. Chinese were kept out of high government offices but they retained chinese officials to serve on a local level. High government posts went to mongols of foreigners.
Kublai's reign with China
extended the Grand canal 135 miles north to Beijing , built a paved highway along its banks that ran 1100miles from Hangzhou to Beijing. Foreign trade also increased, caravan routes across central asia were made safe for travel and trade, silk and porcelain greatly valued in europe and western asia.
Marco Polo at the Mongol Court
most famous european to visit china, a young venetian trader. Traveled by caravan on the silk roads with his father and uncle. served Kublai well for 17 years via government missions within various chinese cities.
END OF MONGOL RULE
Kublai attempted to further expand his empire into south east asia, armies suffered defeats losing lots of lives and money, overtaxed the chinese while wasting money on luxuries as well as war lead to problems
Yuan Dynasty overthrown.
Kublai overthrown in 1294, family members argued over who would rule, over and 8year period 4 different khans took the throne, Many rebellions broke out in china in the 1300s. Chinese rebels overthrew the mongols completely, new founded dynasty, the ming.
Japan starts to grow, 4000 islands, 4 main islands that people historically lived on. Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu. Japans land had only 12% of its land suitable for farming, short supply of coal, iron, oil. etc. tropical typhoons occur along with earthquakes and tidal waves.
split up into different territories, each having a clan that had a god or goddess that said clan worshiped. Varied customs and beliefs combined to form japan's earliest religion. called Shinto, meaning "way of the gods"
claimed to have descend from the sun goddess Amaterasu, leading clan of Japan, 400 A.D, self claimed. 7th century yamato leaders called themselves emperors accepted the ideas of emperor ruling since they were not accustomed to it. lacked power but was never overthrown.
major influence from Chinese ideas and customers, which they learned about from korean travelers. Buddhism was an important influence brought over, japanese imperial court official accepted it in japan. buddhist ideas and worship spread through japan society, however their shinto beliefs were not given up.
interest in buddhist ideas at the japanese court soon grew into an enthusiasm for all things chinese. Japan adopted chinese system of writing, simple arts, cooking, drinking tea, hairdressing, modeled its government after china's at one point even. tried to introduce China's civil-service system in japan but that failed, They adopted all of these Chinese ideas and customs to suit their own needs but still retained their own traditions. eventually they decided they learned enough from tang china.
DECLINE OF CENTRAL POWER
power of central government and the Fujiwaras began to slip. large landowners living away from the capitval set up private armies, they countryside became lawless and dangerous. armed soldiers on horseback prayed on farmers and travelers, pirates in the sea.. For protection, small landowners traded part of their land to warlords as an exchange. with more land, lords gained more power, this set the stage for a feudal system.
bodyguards and loyal warriors that each lord had. samurai's lived by a demanding code of behavior called BUSHIDO, "way of the warrior". They were to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness and generosity toward those weaker than himself, dying an honorable death was judged more important than living a long life.
late 110s japanese two most power clans fought for power. 30 years of war almost, the Minamoto family emerged victorious. 1192 - emperor gave a Minamoto leader named Yoritomo the titled of SHOGUN or "supreme general of the emperor's army" shogun had powers of a military dictator.
KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF SUI DYNASTY
-completion of grand canal
-Their greatest accomplishment: completion of the grand canal. This connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang. Vital route between nothern cities and southern rice producing region of the Chang Delta. Thousands died building this as well as rebuilding the great wall, People turned against the Sui dynasty, over taxed and overworked, revolt in 618.
KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF TANG DYNASTY
-reconquered the northern and western lands that china had lost since the decline of the han dynasty
-strengthened the central government
-expanded the network of roads and canals begun by the Sui
-promoted foreign trade and improvements in agriculture
KEY ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF SONG DYNASTY
-established a grand new capital at Hangzhou
-saw economic growth, became the economic heartland of china, grew rich with trade from chinese in the north, nomads of central asia, and people of western asia and europe