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Process by which we learn the ways of society, the knowledge ,skills , attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them. "society makes us human"

Like our minds, our emotions depend on


The sociologist who studied feral children, including the abused child Isabelle who was discovered in 1938 living in the attic with her deaf-mute mother was

Kingsley Davis

Fred has joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to cook for the fraternity brothers, address the fraternity brothers as sir. This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed

a degradation ceremony

In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure-seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex

the id

What conclusion did psychologists Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis make after observing interactions of mothers and children?

Mothers unconsciously rewarded their daughters for being dependent.

According to Sigmund Freud, when id gets out of hand , individuals follow their desires for pleasure and

break society's norms

John joined the military this year. When he arrived at boot camp he was immediately greeted with a degradation ceremony and came under total control of the officials. This is an example of

total institution


Individuals who are about the same age and are linked by common interests, including friends and "kids in the neighborhood"


technique created by Sigmund Freud for the treatment of emotional problems through long-term intensive exploration of the subconscious mind

How is Piagets sensorimotor stage similar to Freud's concept of the id?

both are focused on sensory input

How does Piaget's concrete operational stage differ from the formal operational stage?

People in the concrete operational stage can understand concepts only in terms of specific examples, while those in the formal operational stage are capable of abstract thinking

Which can be attributed more to biology than to socialization?

facial expressions that can express certain emotions, such as fear and happiness

In which of Piaget's stages would a person be able to explain the concept of empathy

formal operational

According to Freud, which forces are in constant conflict

id and superego




social environment

Charles H. Cooley

self is how society makes us human. Coined term "looking-glass self", argued that children develop a sense of self through three steps. first they imagine how other people see them, second they interpret the reactions of others to them, third they develop feelings about themselves, a self-concept based on interactions with others.

George H Mead

self has two parts, I-self as subject, ME-self as object. Mead stressed that we cannot think without symbols. He was a symbolic interactionist who pointed out how important play is in developing self. As we play with others, we learn to take the role of the other.

Jean Piaget

Studied the development of the mind, noticed when young children take IQ tests they often give similar wrong answers. Concluded that children go thru a natural process as they develop their ability to reason. Developed the four stages.

Symbolic interactionism

a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another

Agents of socialization

individuals and groups that influence our orientations to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior

Gender socialization

Gender map-the ways in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female

Society within us

Socialization is essential for our development as human beings. From our interaction with others, we learn to think, reason, and feel. The net result is the shaping of our behavior- including our thinking and emotions- according to cultural standards.

Agents of socialization

The family, the neighborhood, religion, daycare, school and peer groups and the workplace

Sensorimotor stage

in which understanding is limited to sensory stimuli such as touch and sight

Preoperational stage

children develop ability to use symbols

Concrete operational stage

in which reasoning ability is more complex but not yet capable of complex abstractions

Formal operational stage

abstract thinking

Transitional adulthood

also called adultolescence. 18-29 years

Middle Years

30-65, early middle years (30-49)

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