111 terms

Music 160 Chapters 5-7


Terms in this set (...)

"rhythm section"
- comprised of the guitarrón, vihuela, and guitar
- provides the rhythmic and harmonic structure and background
Yup'ik drum. drums are the only instrument that accompanies the dances. 2-foot rim of bent spruce
• translucent plastic or airplane fabric is stretched over the rim
• historically, dried walrus stomach was used for the drum skin (eciq)
• skin is pulled to change drum's tone
A dance band, especially one of Latin America. Accordion‐based
• Product of working‐class Texas‐Mexican and northern Mexican culture
• By mid‐1950s ‐ have the standard conjunto ensemble of accordion, bajo sexto, bass, and drum set
stylized calls; used to add or indicate excitement, emotion or drama:c effect
Type of group or ensemble
• Musician who plays mariachi
• Style of music
• Mariachi music emerges in western Mexico (state of Jalisco)
Mid‐19th century - first written uses of the term "mariachi"
- Early 20th century - more consistent references to "mariachi" as a musical group
duple meter
) is a musical metre characterized by a primary division of 2 beats to the bar, usually indicated by 2 and multiples (simple) or 6 and multiples (compound) in the upper figure of the time signature, with 2/2 (cut time), 2/4, and 6/8 (at a fast tempo) being the most common examples.
flexible meter
Have regular grouping of beats - e.g. Metis fiddling
free meter
Free meter ‐ do not have a regular grouping of beats - e.g. Mele Oli
triple meter
Triple metre (or triple meter, also known as triple time) is a musical metre characterized by a primary division of 3 beats to the bar, usually indicated by 3 (simple) or 9 (compound) in the upper figure of the time signature, with 3/4, 3/2, and 3/8 being the most common examples
• Focus on Texas‐Mexican (Tejano) culture and musicians
• Focus on working‐class Tejano culture in particular
bajo sexto
is a Mexican string instrument with 12 strings in 6 double courses, while bajo quinto has 10 strings in 5 double courses
button accordion
is a type of accordion on which the melody-side keyboard consists of a series of buttons rather than piano-style keys. There exists a wide variation in keyboard systems, tuning, action and construction of these instruments
electric bass
s a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers or thumb, by plucking, slapping, popping, tapping, thumping, or picking.
electric guitar
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses a pickup to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical impulses
The guitarrón mexicano (literally "Mexican large guitar" in Spanish, the suffix "-ón" denoting "large") or Mexican guitarron, is a very large, deep-bodied Mexican 6-string acoustic bass played traditionally in mariachi groups. Although similar to the guitar, it is not a derivative of that instrument, but was independently developed from the sixteenth-century Spanish bajo de uña. It achieves audibility by its great size, and does not require electric amplification for performances in small venues. The guitarrón is fretless with heavy gauge strings, most commonly nylon for the high three and metal for the low three.
ipu heke
a drum made of two gourds of unequal size which are attached at the necks.
five course guitar of Mexico, smaller than the normal guitar
The pahu or pa'u is a traditional musical instrument found in Polynesia: Hawaii, Tahiti, Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tokelau. Carved from a single log and covered on the playing end with a stretched sharkskin, the pahu is played with the palms and fingers of the hand. It is considered a sacred instrument and was generally kept in a temple (heiau), and used to accompany a repertoire of sacred songs called hula pahu/ura p'au. Translation = Drum
the puniu (coconut shell knee drum). The latter instrument was made from a coconut (niu), hence the name puniu. The coconut shell was prepared by cutting the stem end off level above its middle, or greatest diameter, and a piece of shark skin membrane was lashed over the opening. The skin of the Kala (Acanthurus unicornis) fish was also used as the drumhead. The knee drum was tied above the knee with braided cords.
The term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller, higher-pitched version of another instrument.
slack key guitar
Slack key guitar music called ki ho'alu
• Strings are loosened, slackened, to produce different kinds of tunings
steel guitar
Uses a steel bar that is slid up and down the fret board instead of the fingers
• By the 1890s, the instrument had become very popular
Platform used for dancing in fandango
upright bass
stringed musical instrument that in Spanish Renaissance art music held the popularity accorded the lute elsewhere in Europe. Built like a large guitar, it had six, sometimes seven, double courses of strings tuned like the lute: G-c-f-a-d′-g′. (The guitar then had four double courses.)

The vihuela was played by the aristocracy, the guitar by commoners. By the 18th century both instruments had given rise to the six-stringed guitar. The vihuela de arco was a viola da gamba, or viol.
he violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes the viola, cello and doublebass.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
1968: Formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota to address
problems in their native community (e.g., poverty, treaty
issues, police harassment)
× 1972: Trail of Broken Treaties march on Washington, D.C.
× Seized the Bureau of Indian Affairs, demanding reform
× Revolutionary activities of AIM leaders led to the
suppression of their movement by the FBI and CIA
× 1973: Occupation of Wounded Knee (South Dakota)
× Standoff between AIM participants and FBI agents
attempting to end the protest
the process whereby a minority group gradually adapts to the customs and attitudes of the prevailing culture and customs
ancestral home of the Nahua people
symbolic of a pre-colonized past
represents rights of Mexican Americans and indigenous people
cultural synthesis
Borrowing from French, "métis" once referred to people of mixed-race
* Métis, a distinct group, are of both First Nations and
European heritage
* A nation of indigenous peoples throughout Canada and into the U.S. (particularly Montana, North Dakota, northwest Minnesota)
* Considered a "'Non-Federally Recognized' Indian
tribe" in the U.S.
* Considered an "Aboriginal peoples" in Canada (formal recognition equal to that of theFirst Nations
The Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion.[1] Extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains in the preceding decade had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds. Rapid mechanization of farm implements, especially small gasoline tractors and widespread use of the combine harvester, were significant in the decisions to convert arid grassland (much of which received no more than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation per year) to cultivated cropland.
Community celebration, gathering. - Community catharsis
- "Collectively falling in love"
- Don't have a central politician or leader
- Is an organic process, community oriented
first nations
The First Nations are the various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis.[2] There are currently over 630[3] recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.[4] The total population is nearly 700,000 people. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, and persons with physical or mental disabilities.[5] First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada.[6]
Song collectors. the unwritten lore (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture
According to Pete Seeger, in various interviews, he first heard the word hootenanny in Seattle, Washington in the late 1930s. It was used by Hugh DeLacy's New Deal political club [1] to describe their monthly music fund raisers.[2] After some debate the club voted in the word hootenanny, which narrowly beat out the word wingding. Seeger, Woody Guthrie and other members of the Almanac Singers later used the word in New York City to describe their weekly rent parties, which featured many notable folksingers of the time.[2] In a 1962 interview in Time, Joan Baez made the analogy that a hootenanny is to folk singing what a jam session is to jazz
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security". When the House abolished the committee in 1975,[1] its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.
The committee's anti-Communist investigations are often confused with those of Senator Joseph McCarthy.[2] McCarthy, as a U.S. Senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee.[3] McCarthy was the Chairman of the Government Operations Committee and its Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U.S. Senate, not the House.
Idle No More
opposed to environmental resource exploitation in general
- but also how native communities are specifically affected
• two main goals:
- indigenous sovereignty
- protection of land and water

Tatics: hunger strikes, teach-ins, protests and rallies, social media, music
Have done flash mobs of round dances, use recordings to raise awareness,
"Hidden meaning, as in Hawaiian poetry; concealed reference, as to a person, thing, or place; words with double meanings that might bring good or bad fortune.
Kapu refers to the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics, religion, etc. An offense that was kapu was often a corporal offense, but also often denoted a threat to spiritual power, or theft of mana. Kapus were strictly enforced. Breaking one, even unintentionally, often meant immediate death,[1] Koʻo kapu. The concept is related to taboo and the tapu or tabu found in other Polynesian cultures. The Hawaiian word kapu is usually translated to English as "forbidden", though it also carries the meanings of "sacred", "consecrated", or "holy".
labor movement
The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. Trade unions are collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many ruling class individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement.
n Hawaiian culture, Mana is a form of a spiritual energy and also healing power which can exist in places, objects and persons. It is the Hawaiian belief that there is a chance to gain mana and lose mana in everything that you do. It is also the Hawaiian belief that mana is an external as well as an internal thing. Certain sites in the Hawaiian Islands are believed to possess strong mana. For example, the top rim of the Haleakala volcano on the island of Maui is believed to be a location of strong mana.
Native American Music Awards (NAMA)
began in 1998
• 30 different award categories for traditional and contemporary genres
Implies rebirth, reinvigoration, usually of something
that has gone into decline, nearly died out, or died out
Character whose myth is "The Man Who Would Not Wash His Face". Also called by the names of various birds whose faces are dark grey brown.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
rhythmic foot stomping of the dancers
borders (fixed/flexible)
cultural representation
liminality/third space
music as political/protest/resistance
music as oral history
popular vs. folk
public memory
Chicano rock
- Ballads or "story songs"
- An important part of Mexican folk literature since the 19th century
- Have also become a part of commercial popular music/entertainment
Topics: Battles and heroes , duels, Horse races , Disasters and tragedies , Crimes , immigrant experience , Dangers of crossing the
border into the U.S. , and Drug trade

Narcocorrido is a style of corrido that specifically discusses drugs or the drug trade
hapa haole
Emergence of hapa haole songs in 20th century (hapa haole means "half‐foreign")
- Blended American popular music with Hawaiian songs
- Used English; also some Hawaiian phrases for flavor
- The lyrics to the melodies portrayed Hawaii as an inviting paradise
- Music was used to attract American tourists
huelga songs
huelga = strike
performed at strikes and meetings
utilized traditional Mexican/Mexican-American genres and ensembles
e.g., conjunto and corridos
also created theatre groups to help portray their message
used mostly for strikes regarding labor and farm worker rights
hula ku'i
A style of music and dance that blended Western and Hawaiian musical elements
Indian Shaker song
Indian Shaker Church - founded in western Washington in 1882 by John and Mary Slocum (no relation to east coast Shaker Church)
ki ho'alu
Loosen the string or key. This is used for musicians doing slack-key guitar
Type of group or ensemble. Typical instrumentation:
- Trumpets, violins, guitar, vihuela, guitarrón, voice
- (sometime s harp)
• Number of musicians can vary
- 7‐10
- Can be more, can be fewer
mele hula
• A style of music and dance that blended Western and Hawaiian musical elements
mele oli
oli is a chant that traditionally was not accompanied by dance
Métis jigs and square dancing
Instruments: fiddle, concertina, harmonica, hand drum, mouth harp, bones or spoons
* Reflects influences of French/British melodies and
dance forms (e.g., reels, waltzes), as well as Aboriginal rhythmic sensibilities and phrasing
* Relationships between Métis jigs, Scots-Irish stepdancing, and First Nations dances
* Music as oral history: songs documenting Métis life
Highly percussive:
* Centrality of fiddle (syncopated, flexible meter, extra
* Handdrum, spoons or bones establish rhythmic patterns
* Use of the body: hand clapping, foot stomping
* Turtulage: a tradition of simple percussive accompaniment (e.g.,spoons) with a hummed melody
movimiento music
powwow/electric powwow
A Tribe Called Red.
mix underground club music/dub-step with powwow music
- known as "powwow step"
• founded in 2008
- originally formed for the purpose of putting on a monthly club night called "Electric Powwow"

North American intertribal/panindigenous musical and social gathering
• influenced by the various styles of the region
• often a dance competition with multiple categorie
style influenced by Plains
communities of US and Canada
• drums keep a steady beat
- drummers are also often the singers
- accompany various styles of dance
• regional vocal ranges:
- northern powwow singing uses a high range
- southern powwow singing uses a low range
ambling game known as stickgame, bonegame, bloodless war game, handgame, or a name specific to each language. It is played throughout the western United States and Canada by indigenous peoples. The name of the game is a Chinook Jargon word. The name bone game comes from the fact that the bone sets historically used were the shin bones from the foreleg of a deer or other animal.
son jarocho
is a regional folk musical style of Mexican Son from Veracruz, a Mexican state along the Gulf of Mexico. It evolved over the last two and a half centuries along the coastal portions of southern Tamaulipas state and Veracruz state, hence the term jarocho, a colloquial term for people or things from the port city of Veracruz.
steel guitar
is a type of guitar or the method of playing the instrument. Developed in Hawaii in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a steel guitar is usually positioned horizontally; strings are plucked with one hand, while the other hand changes the pitch of one or more strings with the use of a bar or slide called a steel (generally made of metal, but also of glass or other materials). The term steel guitar is often mistakenly used to describe any metal body resophonic guitar.
story song
talking blues
Rhythmic speech
§"Speech-song continuum" form of folk music and country music. It is characterized by rhythmic speech or near-speech where the melody is free, but the rhythm is strict.
urban folk
has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. One meaning often given is that of old songs, with no known composers; another is music that has been transmitted and evolved by a process of oral transmission or performed by custom over a long period of time.
Yup'ik dancesong
Alan Lomax
Alan Lomax (January 31, 1915 - July 19, 2002) was one of the great American field collectors of folk music of the 20th century. He was also a folklorist, ethnomusicologist, archivist, writer, scholar, political activist, oral historian, and film-maker. Lomax also produced recordings, concerts, and radio shows in the U.S and in England, which played an important role in both the American and British folk revivals of the 1940s, '50s and early '60s.
The Almanac Singers
The Almanac Singers was an American New York City-based folk music group, active between 1940 and 1943, founded by Millard Lampell, Lee Hays, Pete Seeger, and Woody Guthrie. As their name indicated, they specialized in topical songs, mostly songs advocating an anti-war, anti-racism and pro-union philosophy. They were part of the Popular Front, an alliance of liberals and leftists, including the Communist Party USA (whose slogan, under their leader Earl Browder, was "Communism is twentieth century Americanism"), who had vowed to put aside their differences in order to fight fascism and promote racial and religious inclusiveness and workers' rights. The Almanac Singers felt strongly that songs could help achieve these goals.[citation needed]
Aztlán Underground
Chicano Rapcore band
began in the late 1980s
mix of hardcore and rap music with indigenous instruments (e.g., flutes, rattles)
Bob Dylan
born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, music producer, artist, and writer. He has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.[2][3] Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly reluctant figurehead of social unrest. A number of Dylan's early songs, such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'", became anthems for the US civil rights[4] and anti-war[5] movements. Leaving his initial base in the culture of folk music behind, Dylan's six-minute single "Like a Rolling Stone" radically altered the parameters of popular music in 1965.[6] His recordings employing electric instruments attracted denunciation and criticism from others in the folk movement.
Cesar Chavez
Born in Yuma, AZ
iconic Chicano activist
started the United Farm workers (UFW)
utilized non-violent protest
inspired by Ghandi and Martin Luther King, JR.
cultural movement coming out of the chicano movement
focused largely on artistic production
Chicano was originally a pejorative term, but was reclaimed through the Chicano Movement
notion of third space/liminality: being neither purely one thing or the other, but instead being both or multiple
The Chicano Movement and Chicanismo continue to present
Coast Salish peoples (Lushootseed speakers)
Dirty Face
Story of Dirty Face as instructional tool
• Primacy of family relationships
• Association with spiritual power
• Presence of songs signals a shift from
normal to esoteric communicative mode
• Power of language ("enchantments" used to change the weather)
• Importance of place
Flaco Jiménez
Born in San Antonio, Texas in 1939
• Important accordionist and singer
• Comes from a family of conjunto musicians
Joan Baez
is an American folk singer, songwriter, musician, and a prominent activist.
Baez has a distinctive vocal style, with a strong vibrato.[1] Her recordings include many topical songs and material dealing with social issues.
Baez began her career performing in coffeehouses in Boston and Cambridge, and rose to fame as an unbilled performer at the 1959 Newport Folk Festival. She began her recording career in 1960, and achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol. 2, and Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold record status, and stayed on the charts of hit albums for two years.[2]
John Lomax
was an American teacher, a pioneering musicologist and folklorist who did much for the preservation of American folk songs. He was father to Alan Lomax, also a distinguished collector of folk music.
Kingston Trio
is an American folk and pop music group that helped launch the folk revival of the late 1950s to late 1960s. The group started as a San Francisco Bay Area nightclub act with an original lineup of Dave Guard, Bob Shane, and Nick Reynolds. The Kingston Trio was one of the most prominent groups of the era's pop-folk boom that started in 1958 with the release of their first album and its hit recording of "Tom Dooley", which sold over three million copies as a single.
Leadbelly (Huddie Ledbetter)
1933 "discovered" and recorded by John and Alan
Lomax in Angola prison in Louisiana

Moved to New York in the
mid-1930s Performed at various festivals and concerts
Sang and played guitar
§Also played other instruments such as accordion and piano
Los Lobos
began in the 1970s
Lobos = Wolves
uses traditional styles such as son jarochoand norteÑo
serve as mentors to other EAST L.A. Rock Groups
Lydia Mendoza
A Tejana musician known for her singing and 12‐string guitar playing
• Born in Houston, Texas
• Made her first recordings in the late 1920s and early 1930s
• Recorded song "Mal Hombre" as a solo artist in 1934
Mixed race. Substantial controversy over who qualifies as Métis
* Role of self-identification
* Many Métis have been absorbed and assimilated into European Canadian populations, making Métis (andthus, aboriginal ancestry) more common than realized
* The Métis flag: symbolic joining of distinct cultures and the immortality of the Métis Nation
Mike Seeger
was an American folk musician and folklorist. He was a distinctive singer and an accomplished musician who played autoharp, banjo, fiddle, dulcimer, guitar, mouth harp, mandolin, dobro, jaw harp, and pan pipes.[1][2] Seeger, a half-brother of Pete Seeger, produced more than 30 documentary recordings, and performed in more than 40 other recordings. He desired to make known the caretakers of culture that inspired and taught him.[3]
Narciso Martinez
Born in a Mexican border town, brought to Texas by parents when was a year old . Accordionist.
is a Yupik musical group from Anchorage in the U.S. state of Alaska
Pete Seeger
s an American folk singer. A fixture on nationwide radio in the 1940s, he also had a string of hit records during the early 1950s as a member of The Weavers, most notably their recording of Lead Belly's "Goodnight, Irene", which topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950.[1] Members of The Weavers were blacklisted during the McCarthy Era. In the 1960s, he re-emerged on the public scene as a prominent singer of protest music in support of international disarmament, civil rights, and environmental causes.
founded by Quetzal Flores in the 1990s
mix son jarocho with Afro-Cuban, R&B, jazz, and rock
including zapateado on the tarima
other son jarocho instruments such as the requinto
Raymond Kane
was one of Hawaii's acknowledged masters of the slack-key guitar. Born in Koloa, Kauaʻi, he grew up in Nanakuli on Oʻahu's Waiʻanae Coast where his stepfather worked as a fisherman.
Sol Hoopii
was born Solomon Hoʻopiʻi Kaʻaiʻai in Honolulu, Hawaii. He was a Native Hawaiian guitarist, claimed by many as the all-time best lap steel guitar virtuoso, and he is one the most famous original Hawaiian steel guitarists, along with Joseph Kekuku, Frank Ferera, Sam Ku West and "King" Bennie Nawahi
A Tribe Called Red
are a Canadian electronic music group, who blend instrumental hip hop, reggae and dubstep-influenced dance music with elements of First Nations music, particularly vocal chanting and drumming.[1] Based in Ottawa, Ontario, the group consists of three DJs, Ian "DJ NDN" Campeau, Dan "DJ Shub" General and Bear Witness,[1] and describes its music as "powwow-step", a style of contemporary powwow music for urban First Nations in the dance club scene.[1]
Vi Hilbert
was a Native American tribal elder of the Upper Skagit, a tribe of the greater Puget Salish in Washington State, whose ancestors occupied the banks along the Skagit River, and was a conservationist of the Lushootseed language and culture. She was named a Washington State Living Treasure in 1989, and received a National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment of the Arts, presented by President Bill Clinton, in 1994. She co-wrote Lushootseed grammars and dictionaries, and published books of stories, teachings, and place names related to her native region, the Puget Sound (also known as Whulge in anglicized Lushootseed)
The Weavers
were an American folk music quartet based in the Greenwich Village area of New York City. They sang traditional folk songs from around the world, as well as blues, gospel music, children's songs, labor songs, and American ballads, and sold millions of records at the height of their popularity. Their hard-driving string-band style inspired the commercial "folk boom" that followed them in the 1950s and 1960s, including such performing groups as The Kingston Trio and Peter, Paul, and Mary.
Woody Guthrie
was an American singer-songwriter and folk musician whose musical legacy includes hundreds of political, traditional and children's songs, ballads and improvised works. He frequently performed with the slogan This Machine Kills Fascists displayed on his guitar. His best-known song is "This Land Is Your Land."
Real person. Yukon-Kuskokwin region of SW Alaska
• population: 23,000
• 56 villages
• Bethel is the regional center