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WH CH 5
Lesson 1 and 2
Terms in this set (68)
Why did the Sui dynasty end?
Sui Yangdi was a cruel ruler, used forced labor, high taxes, luxurious lifestyle for himself, military failures, causing a rebellion, which led to the murder of the emperor
What changes did the Tang Dynasty make during its rule?
The Tang Dynasty gave land to peasants, created a more stable economy, restored the civil service system examination, restored the power of China in East Asia, brought peace to northwestern China and expanded China's control into the area north of the Himalaya -Tibet
What challenges did leaders of the Song dynasty experience?
Northern neighbors crossed into Northern China and occupied large Chinese territory. Song rulers were forced to move the imperial court south to Hangzhou, the Song also lost control over Tibet. Mongols also overthrew the Song and set a new Mongol dynasty.
What technological developments occurred during the rule of the tree dynasties?
During the Tang dynasty, Chinese began to make steel for swords by mixing cast and wrought iron in a blast furnace. Cotton was made to make new clothes, gunpowder was also made during the Tang dynasty to make flamethrowers(fire-lance), and explosives
How did trade change? Why was the Silk Road an important development in china during this period?
Trade changed because state officials had controlled most long-distance trade. The Silk Road was important because it was more than a trade route, it passed on ideas such as, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam. Technical knowledge spread like the secrets of printing, drilling wells, making iron, gunpowder, paper and silk.
What were some hobbies enjoyed by wealthy Chinese during this period?
Women dancing, Playing cards and chess, brought from India, paddlewheel boat and horseback riding, made travel easier, and the invention of block printing in the eight century provided new ways to communicate
What changes took place in the countryside during this time?
A complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers emerged. Most significant was the rise of the landed gentry. This group controlled the land and produced most of the candidates for the civil service. Scholar-gentry replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society.
Who were the Mongols and how did they come under one ruler?
Mongols were pastoral people from the region of modern-day Mongolia, organized loosely into clans. Swept out of Gabi to seize control over much the known world. Genghis Khan conquered all the other tribes one by one.
What were the accomplishments of Kublai Khan?
Kublai Khan completed the conquest of the Song and set up a new Chinese dynasty the Yuan, established the capital in Khanbalik, presnt-day Beijing. The Yuan, or mongols continued to expand the empire under the leadership of Kublai Khan.
How did the Mongols rule China?
Mongol rulers adopted the Chinese political system and made use of Chinese bureaucrats. Mongols became a separate class from the Chinese. The highest positions in the bureaucracy was staffed by mongols.
Who were the first groups intrigued by Buddhism and Daoism, and why did they become more and more popular?
At first merchants and intellectuals were intrigues by Buddhism and Daoism. As a result of the insecurity that prevailed after the collapse of the Han dynasty both became more attractive to people.
Why did Buddhism grow out of favor?
Buddhism was criticized for being a foreign religion. Buddhist monasteries had acquired thousands of acres, with land came corruption. During the Tang dynasty, countless Buddhist temples were destroyed. Buddhism was also denying the very essence of confucian teachings.
What is neo-Confucanism?
Neo-Confucanism was a new doctrine, served as a confucian response to Buddhism and Daosim. It teaches the world is real, not and illusion, and that fulfillment comes from participation in the world.
Why is the Tang dynasty viewed as the great age of prosperity in China? What was expected of poetry during the Tang?
The invention of painting during the Tang dynasty made literature more available. At least 48,000 poems were written by some 2,200 authors. Poetry was expected to encourage high morals ideals and served as a means of self-expression.
What were the major accomplishments of Mongol rule of China?
Mongol rule ensures Chinese technology, expansion of empire, adoption of political system, and increase in trade.
How did We Zhao become the most powerful person in China?
Since Gaozong was cickly, Wu Zhao held supreme power. After the emperor died, Wu Zhao took control of the the thrown in her own name.
Why was the rule of Wu Zhao important?
She succeeded in transforming China from a country ruled by military and political elite to a country governed by a scholarly bureaucracy. She also established a unified empire that lasted for hundreds of years.
What were the three major groups trading along the Silk Road?
Central Asia, Western Asia, and the Mediterranean
What major cities were along the Silk Road?
City of Changan in China, Antioch, a port city in the Mediterranean Sea, Greece, and Rome
Three Kingdoms Period
Quinn dynasty unifies china
Three kingdoms period was a time of chaos and fighting, civil war
A period of prosperity, lost control of northern lands, forced to move imperial court to south Hangzhou, lost Tibet, and conquered by Mongols
Had a monarchy that employed a relatively large bureaucracy to maintain order
Reunification of China, builds the grand canal, forced labor, high taxes, and emperor was assassinated
How long did the Tang Dynasty last?
300 years (618-907)
Geography mountainous archipelago(groups of island)
2. Honshu (main)
Osaka and Kyoto
-First settlers in the Yamato Plain
-First settlers in the Yamato Plain
-organized into clans
-aristocratic class were above artisans and peasants
7th century Shotoku Taishi
7th century Shotoku Taishi tried to unite the clans in order to strengthen the Japanese against invaders like the Chinese
-Adapted the centralized government under one ruler
-Form land belongs to stet and takes are paid to government instead of local lords
The Nara Period
The Nara Period-
The Fujiwara clan takes control and moved capital. Nara emperor used title "Son of Heavan
Present day Kyoto- Heian-Kyo
Fujiwara still control
Emperor rules in name only
Emergence of Samurai (those who serve)
-Code of Bushido (the way of the warrior)
By 14th and 15th century power was held by wealthy aristocrats, now called daimyo relied on samurai
Barder was used until 12th century
Ancestors of present day japan settles near the modern cities of
Ōsaka and Kyōto
One ruler of the the what clan eventually achieved supremacy over the others and became, in effect, ruled of Japan
Ruler of Yamato clan
Who in the early what century tried to unify the various clans
Early 7th century, Shōtoku Taishi
What type of new centralized system of government was made based roughly off what system of govt
Japanese system of government roughly based off Chinese system of government
What year did Shōtoku Taishi die?
Three period after Shōtoku Taishi's death in 622?
Nara period, Heian Period, and Kamakura Shogunate
What war led to the virtual distruction of what city?
Onion war, Kyōto
How long did the Onin war last?
From 1467 to 1477
During what period did manufacturing grow?
Was early japan mostly a farming society but allowed manufacturing to develop?
Foreign trade was mainly with whom during what century?
Korea and China during the 11th century
What religion evolved after the beliefs of early Japanese?
Japanese who were not satisfied with Shinto beliefs turned to what religion?
What year were the Chinese driven out?
What three separate kingdoms emerged after the Chinese being driven out?
Koguryo -North, Paekche -Southwest, Silla -Southeast
What new dynasty arose in the early 10th century in the north and adopted Chinese political institutions?
Who became leader of an islamic state in what is now Afghanistan in 977?
What kingdoms did Mahūd Ghanza begin to attack?
Hindu kingdoms to the southeast
What new Muslim state was created in 1200?
Sultanate of Delhi
Who overthrew the Chinese rule in Dai Viet and adopted what model for rule?
Vietnamese, and Confucianism/Chinese model for rule
Who established the Khmer empire?
What other name does the Khmer empire have?
Angkor which became the most powerful state in Southeast Asia
What kingdom emerged in the late 1200s
What states drew most of their wealth from land?
Vietnam, Angkor, Pagan
What state supported themselves through trade?
What culture influenced Southeast Asia?
What temple combines Indian architectural techniques with native inspiration?
India and Southeast Asia contained a diversity of races, cultures, and religions
What characterized the politics and culture life of early Japan?
They tried to reform their govt based on Chinese model, increased the power of the samurai,
Powerful aristocrats took control and Kamakura civil war
"Those who serve"
Bushido strict warrior code samurai lived by
"The way of the warrior"
Head of noble families or "great names"
"The sacred way" "the way of the gods"
Theravada "the teachings I ten elders"
Less strict Buddah school for ordinary people
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