The leading cause of death from disease in 2- to 6-year-old children in the United States is cancer.
Which of the following is the best example of scaffolding?
Miriam helps her son Ben make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.
In which of the following areas will deficits be most apparent in a child who is maltreated?
Egocentrism is Piaget's terminology for describing the concept of centration, in which the child thinks about the world from his own personal perspective.
Michael has been hitting his peers at school, which can be characterized as relational aggression.
A preschooler's approach to the world is often dictated more by her own subjective views of the world than by the world's reality.
Eduardo is a natural-born musician with the ability to pick up and play nearly any musical instrument. His musical ability is located in the left side of his brain.
A child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called:
The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are):
Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this is:
Girls are better at regulating their externalizing emotions than are boys.
Identify the prosocial behavior:
Beth feeds her baby brother because her mother is sick.
Which of the following is true regarding left-handed people?
Their corpus callosums tend to be thicker than those in right-handed people.
A good example of a fine motor skill is:
using scissors to cut paper
One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:
children can master some tasks with the help of others.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggressive himself
Freud believed that preschool boys:
secretly want to replace their fathers
Mrs. Kaminsky is a very nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:
To find a good preschool, a parent should look for:
teachers responsive to children's needs; low teacher-child ratios.
During childhood, the odds of dying in an accident are about four times greater than the odds of dying due to cancer.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Which of the following focuses on how children perceive and understand their experiences?
Symptoms of maltreatment include:
Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 ______ intelligence.
According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
to advance thought
A confidential nationwide survey of young adults in the United States found that, as a child, ______ had been slapped, hit, or kicked by a parent or other adult caregiver.
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan's father?
In developed nations, which of the following is most likely to be lacking in a child's diet?
calcium, iron, and zinc
Centration is an obstacle to developing logical operations.
Skills that the person can accomplish with assistance but can't yet perform independently are part of:
the zone of proximal development
The ethnic group from which children tend to be tallest is:
Research on spanking suggests that it is quick and efficient at age 2 or 3, and that:
may have negative repercussions later
The hippocampus is a central processor of memory, especially with regard to locations.
Evelyn dropped a tiny spot of ketchup on her pants during lunch time. Even though her teacher was able to totally remove the spot, Evelyn is crying hysterically and she wants to go home because she feels that her outfit is ruined. This behavior is an example of which of the following?
focus on appearance
Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:
"she isn't eating enough"
In the United States, how many hours per day does the typical child aged 2 to 4 spend watching television?
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
underdeveloped prefrontal cortex
Bilingual children often acquire reading at a faster rate than children who only speak one language.
Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention are all targeted at preventing child maltreatment before it ever occurs.
Jarred, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:
Cultural differences with regard to acceptable methods of discipline are apparent.
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:
the oedipus complex
The word accident implies that an injury is random, an unpredictable event.
The typical 3-year-old might believe that she can run as fast as her 6-year-old sister can.
Angelica is 3 years old and says frequently that she wants to "marry daddy." According to psychoanalytic theory, this is a manifestation of:
the electra complex
A major nutritional problem in early childhood is insufficient intake of iron, zinc, and calcium.
Studies with Romanian children have revealed that by the age of 4, children who were in foster homes rather than institutionalized, demonstrated lower IQ ratings.
According to recent statistics, by the age of 3, the percentage of children with a television in their bedrooms is:
Baumrind suggested that the four dimensions of parenting are warmth, discipline, communication, and sharing.
The Electra complex causes girls to:
adore their father, resent their mothers
By age 5 years, the brain has attained about half of its adult weight.
A disorder that may result from abnormal development of the corpus callosum is:
Parents who make few maturity demands on their children would be considered authoritarian.
Adoption is usually the best solution for young children in inadequate families.
According to Erikson, which of the following aids a young child in demonstrating initiative?
a longer attention span resulting from neurological maturity
Failure to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original conditions or situation is called:
Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for children to think:
the best time to learn a second language is in early childhood.
Sara, age 3, sees a little boy fall and hurt himself, and she gets a look of concern on her face. She is probably experiencing:
Which type of aggression tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds?
Of the types of aggression described, instrumental aggression is common and the most likely to increase from 2 to 6 years of age.
The development of theory of mind has been demonstrated across cultures.
Secondary prevention involves:
responding to first warning signs of a problem
Thinking about one idea at a time, ignoring other ideas, is known as:
Maltreated children are more aggressive than other children are.
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
Some stress actually aids learning. Too little stress can be as harmful as too much.
By age 6 years, most children have nearly adultlike proportions; that is, they no longer have the large heads, short limbs, and protruding stomachs characteristic of toddlers.
Gabriel's language and cognitive skills have developed greatly since he began attending preschool. His teacher explains things to the children when they participate in small-group activities and she encourages conversation between children and adults. According to Vygotsky, she uses language to advance thinking through:
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are:
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:
theory of mind
Children usually cannot apply gender labels with any consistency until they are 5 or 6 years old.
Brittany would set the dinner table only if she could have a treat after dinner. Her willingness to help was extrinsically motivated.
At the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of ______ words and a vocabulary of ______ words at age 6.
To successfully resolve the Oedipus complex, the child must:
strive to be like father
Over the past three decades in Brazil, what has been the trend in children in terms of health and body growth?
undernourished to over nourished
The prefrontal cortex may be considered the executive of the brain because it rules all other areas of the cortex.
The left hemisphere of the brain is where language abilities are located in most people.
The process of learning to think by having social experiences and by exploration is called guided participation.
Having been spanked as a child is the primary predictor of violent behavior in adulthood.
The area of the brain that is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions is the:
Perseveration is the tendency to continue an activity even when it has become inappropriate to do so.
The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is:
Rough-and-tumble play, the most common form of active play, is found traditionally and almost exclusively among children living in the United States.
According to cognitive theory, society socializes children in regard to gender differences.
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
has demonstrated irreversible thinking.
Secondary prevention reduces the danger of harm to people in high-risk situations.
Myelination is essential for basic communication between neurons.
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
initiative vs. guilt
Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about ______ pounds and grow about ______ inches per year.
The age group that experiences the most physical punishment is children between the ages of:
Failure to brush the teeth is the primary cause of early tooth decay.
A critical-period view of language learning refers to:
the only time language can be learned
Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on which of the following?
the child's feelings of guilt and gratitude towards the parents
The part of the brain that specializes in planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts is the cerebellum.
Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old is in the:
According to behaviorists, gender role distinctions are the result of nurture.
The Montessori schools focus on using materials and projects in such a way that children would get a strong sense of accomplishment.
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of:
conservation of number
which of the following describes the play of children from developed nations?
Play space in developed countries provides social learning and takes place in child-care settings.
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all of the different foods on her plate separated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this "just-right" obsession.
The child most likely to have permissive parents is:
Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.
A theory of mind is one's own personal understanding of mental processes, of the complex interaction among emotions, perceptions, thoughts, and intentions in others and ourselves.
About one-third of all reported cases of maltreatment are substantiated annually.
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
expectations for maturity
Symptoms of maltreatment include:
If children experience a great deal of stress in their lives, their brain development is accelerated due to increased coping skills.
Overregularization is actually a sign of verbal sophistication.
Conservation refers to a child's assumption that the world is unchanging.
The function of speech by which a person's understanding is expanded and advanced is:
Children who experience physical punishment tend to be less aggressive than other children are.
The presence of imaginary friends positively correlates with an increase in: