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During the Renaissance, a more secular, or worldly, viewpoint developed


Venice was a republic with an elected leader called a Doge.


Machiavelli believed that political activity should be restricted by moral principles


Humanists educators stressed physical education as well as intellectual stimulation


Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature in their works.


The most important northern school of art in the fifteenth century was found in Flanders.


Martin Luther believed that humans gain salvation through faith and good works


The Edict of Worms confirmed Martin Luther's ideas and was an official statement in support of his theses.


Under Charles V, the Holy Roman Empire was restricted to ruling lands in Bohemia and Italy.


One of the core beliefs of Calvinism is the idea of predestination.


The Anabaptists were accepted and tolerated by Protestants and Catholics alike.


The Council of Trent gave the Rom Catholic Church a clear body of doctrine and a unified purpose under the leadership of the pope.

Possibly used by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as a model for a Plan of Union for the British Colonies.

The Grand Council, an experiment in democracy, was

Mesa Verde

Groups of Anasazi formed a large community at _____, where they built a remarkable series of cliff dwellings

composed of city states,each governed by a heredity ruling class

The mayan civilization was

delay the final destruction of the world

The Aztec practiced human sacrifice in order to

kept records using a system of knotted strings called the quipu

Since the Inca lacked a writing system, they


What was the language taught to the people conquered by the Inca

they took the cross on the Spaniards' breastplate to be the sign that Quetzalcoatl was returning

The Aztec initially accepted the Spanish because

the earth mounds they built

The Hopewell peoples are especially known for

an alliance of five groups

The Great Peace created

food, clothing, tools, and shelter

The Plains Indians used the buffalo for


______ is the name given to the areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the Spaniards


The Aztec capital,____ was built on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco

a city built by the Inca, and serves as the finest example of Incan architecture

Machu Picchu was

lack of a natural immunity to diseases that the Spanish brought with them from Europe

One of the factors that contributed to the downfall of both the Inca and the Aztec empire was their


After the Incan emperor died from smallpox, which of his sons won the battle for his throne?

established a new capital at Lima

After conquering the Incan capital of Cuzco, Pizarro

Spanish mercenaries were let loose to sack the city of Rome

The war between France and Spain for control of Italy ended when the

was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematiccian

Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy's social ideal becaue he

works written in defense of women

Christine de Pizan is best known for her


The frescoes painted by _____ have long been regarded as the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art.

if people read the classics, and especially the basic works of Christianity, they would become more pious

Christian humanists believed that


___ was the first Protestant faith

accepted the division of Christianity in Germany

The Peace of Ausburg formally

the formation of the Consistory

Part of Calivin's reformation of the icty Geneva included

did nothing to change women' subordinate role in society

Despite their importance in developing a new view of the family, Protestants

Ignatius of Loyola

___founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits

described the characterists of a perfect Renaissace noble

in 1528, Baldassare Castiglione wrote "The Book of the Courtier", which

Strengthen business or family ties

Parents in Renaissance Italy carefully arranged marriage, often to

Chaucer's use of the English vernacular was important in making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English Language.

Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," is an important work because


The____ movement had a profound effect on education

Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo

The High Renaissance in Italy is associated with which three artists

Desiderus Erasmus

_______ was the best known of all Christian humanists

attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation

The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses


Calvin agreed with Luther on most important doctrines except


Both the Catholics and the Protestants considered the ___ to be dangerous radicals

reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs

The final decrees of the Coucil of Trent

very profitable, since da Gama returned with a cargo of spices and made a profit of several thousand percent/

Vasco de Gama's dicovery of a route to India by sea proved to be

Christopher Columbus

___ went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the America's


What was the name of the set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century?

the Dutch

Who were the first European settlers of the Hudson River valley?

sugarcane plantations

Originally, African slaves were brought to the Americas to supply labor for the

Spice Islands

The Moluccas were known to Europeans as the


___ became the dominant religion on the Southeast Asain mainland from 1500 to 1800

Gold Coast

To portugese explorers, the southern coast of West Africa became known as the

established a line of demarcation between territories controlled by Portugal and those controlled by Spain

The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494

John Cabot

____ explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England

The middle passage

What was the name for the journey of slaves from Africa to America?

the spice trade there was enormously profitable

European rulers and merchants were determined to gain control of the islands of Southeast Asia because

the mainland states were able to unite and drive the Europeans out.

Europeans had less impact on the mainland states of Southeast Asia because

balance of trade

The ____ is the difference in values between what a nation imports and what it exports over time

the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God

James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is


The ___ were Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas

take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship

Oliver Cromwell's defeat of the king's forces allowed him to

a system of government in which a ruler holds total power

what is absolutism?


Seven Percent of the toal French population wre

gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges

The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholism as the offical religion of France, and


The Thirty Years' War involved all the major European powers except with nation?

the invasion of England by William of Orange, which overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed

what was the "Glorious Revolution"?

taking away the Huguenots' political and military rights and executing conspirators

Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

_______ sought to increase the wealth and power by France by following the ideas of mercantilism

John Locke

The ideas of _____ can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States

the Bosporus and the Dardanelles

Ottoman expansion in the early fourteenth century eventually led to their control over

converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan

Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were

reached the high point of its glory

Under Shah Abbas, the Safavid dynasty

that Shah Ismail was a direct successor of the prophet Muhammad

The Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by the Shiites, who believed


Who established the Mogul dynasty?

was empowered by the British crown to fight any force that threatened the East India Company's power in India

Sir Robert Clive was an aggressive British empire builder who

Taj Mahal

Shah Jahan had the ____ built in Agra in memory of his wife

the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula

In the late thirteenth century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in

Mehmet II

Under the leadership of ______, the Ottoman conquered Constantinople and gained dominance over the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula


The__ brought an era of unity to the subcontinent of India in the 1600s

heavy artillery and successful negotiators

What two elements aided Akbar in gaining control of almost all of India?

"Akbar Style"

What Mogul school of painting combined Persian with Indian Motifs?

Nicholas Copernicus

___ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe

Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe

Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation

Use inductive reasoning

Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, believed scientists should

molded by their experiences

John Locke's ideas suggest that people were

like a clock

To Voltaire and many other philosophes, the universe was

an entire society agrees to be goverened by its general will

In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of a socail contract

Great Britain gained control of India and North America, making it the world's greatest colonial power

As a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763

a meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation

The Constitutional Convention began as

the universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth fixed at the center

According to the Ptolemaic system,

the heavenly bodies were composed of material substance just like Earth, not pure orb of light.

Galileo's observations seemed to indicate that

Rene Descartes

Who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism?

analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances

Montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his

the state should not regulate the economy

Adam Smith believed in laissez-faire, by which he meant that

Robert Walpole

Which British head of cabinet acquired Canada and India

Articles of Confederation

The American nation's first constition was called the

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