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The Edict of Worms confirmed Martin Luther's ideas and was an official statement in support of his theses.
The Council of Trent gave the Rom Catholic Church a clear body of doctrine and a unified purpose under the leadership of the pope.
Possibly used by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as a model for a Plan of Union for the British Colonies.
The Grand Council, an experiment in democracy, was
Groups of Anasazi formed a large community at _____, where they built a remarkable series of cliff dwellings
kept records using a system of knotted strings called the quipu
Since the Inca lacked a writing system, they
they took the cross on the Spaniards' breastplate to be the sign that Quetzalcoatl was returning
The Aztec initially accepted the Spanish because
______ is the name given to the areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the Spaniards
lack of a natural immunity to diseases that the Spanish brought with them from Europe
One of the factors that contributed to the downfall of both the Inca and the Aztec empire was their
After the Incan emperor died from smallpox, which of his sons won the battle for his throne?
Spanish mercenaries were let loose to sack the city of Rome
The war between France and Spain for control of Italy ended when the
was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematiccian
Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy's social ideal becaue he
The frescoes painted by _____ have long been regarded as the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art.
if people read the classics, and especially the basic works of Christianity, they would become more pious
Christian humanists believed that
did nothing to change women' subordinate role in society
Despite their importance in developing a new view of the family, Protestants
described the characterists of a perfect Renaissace noble
in 1528, Baldassare Castiglione wrote "The Book of the Courtier", which
Strengthen business or family ties
Parents in Renaissance Italy carefully arranged marriage, often to
Chaucer's use of the English vernacular was important in making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English Language.
Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," is an important work because
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
The High Renaissance in Italy is associated with which three artists
attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation
The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses
reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
The final decrees of the Coucil of Trent
very profitable, since da Gama returned with a cargo of spices and made a profit of several thousand percent/
Vasco de Gama's dicovery of a route to India by sea proved to be
___ went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the America's
What was the name of the set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century?
Originally, African slaves were brought to the Americas to supply labor for the
established a line of demarcation between territories controlled by Portugal and those controlled by Spain
The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494
the spice trade there was enormously profitable
European rulers and merchants were determined to gain control of the islands of Southeast Asia because
the mainland states were able to unite and drive the Europeans out.
Europeans had less impact on the mainland states of Southeast Asia because
balance of trade
The ____ is the difference in values between what a nation imports and what it exports over time
the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is
take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship
Oliver Cromwell's defeat of the king's forces allowed him to
gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholism as the offical religion of France, and
the invasion of England by William of Orange, which overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed
what was the "Glorious Revolution"?
taking away the Huguenots' political and military rights and executing conspirators
Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by
_______ sought to increase the wealth and power by France by following the ideas of mercantilism
The ideas of _____ can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States
the Bosporus and the Dardanelles
Ottoman expansion in the early fourteenth century eventually led to their control over
converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan
Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were
that Shah Ismail was a direct successor of the prophet Muhammad
The Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by the Shiites, who believed
was empowered by the British crown to fight any force that threatened the East India Company's power in India
Sir Robert Clive was an aggressive British empire builder who
the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula
In the late thirteenth century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in
Under the leadership of ______, the Ottoman conquered Constantinople and gained dominance over the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula
heavy artillery and successful negotiators
What two elements aided Akbar in gaining control of almost all of India?
___ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe
Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe
Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation
an entire society agrees to be goverened by its general will
In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of a socail contract
Great Britain gained control of India and North America, making it the world's greatest colonial power
As a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763
a meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation
The Constitutional Convention began as
the universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth fixed at the center
According to the Ptolemaic system,
the heavenly bodies were composed of material substance just like Earth, not pure orb of light.
Galileo's observations seemed to indicate that
analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances
Montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his
the state should not regulate the economy
Adam Smith believed in laissez-faire, by which he meant that
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