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Terms in this set (181)

1. Selection Bias: can arise when an experiment has more than one group of participants, you want tot compare the groups but they differ or do not form equivalent groups
2. History: history effect: is the result of an event unrelated to the treatment will occur during the experiment and influence the dependent variable; more likely the longer the experiment
3. Maturation: Maturation effect: is a result of a threat that a biological, psychological, or emotional process within participants other than the treatment occurs during the experiment and influences the dependent variable
4. Testing: Testing effect: threatens the internal validity because more than the treatment alone affects the dependent variable
5. Instrumentation: related to stability reliability
-occurs when the instrument or dependent variable measure changes during the experiment
6. Experimental mortality: when some research participants do not continue throughout the entire experiment this happens, also called attrition
-if many people leave halfway through we cant know if they results would have been different had they stayed
7. Statistical Regression effect: Problem of extreme values or a tendency for random errors to move groups results toward the average. Can occur in 2 ways
a. Happens when participants are unusual with regard to the dependent variable; because they are unusual they do not respond further in one direction
b. OR involves a problem with the measurement instrument: if your measure is such that most people score really high or low random chance alone will produce a change between the pretest and the posttest
8. Diffusion of treatment or contamination: diffusion of treatment is the threat that research participants in different groups will communicate with each other and learn about the other's treatment; can avoid by isolation
9. Compensatory behavior: occurs in experiments where one group is offered something of value and the other is not; inequality between the groups may create a desire to reduce differences, competitive rivalry between groups, or resentful demoralization
10. Experimenter Expectancy: an experimenter's behavior might threaten internal validity if the experimenter indirectly communicates a desired outcome
-double bind experiment: is a design intended to control experimenter expectancy- only the people who have direct contact with participants do not know the details of the hypothesis or the treatment; neither participants nor researchers know the details to the experiment
11. Demand Characteristics: A threat to internal validity related to reactivity
-happens when participants pick up clues about the hypothesis or an experiments purpose and then modify behavior to what they think the research demands of them
12. Placebo Effect: Threat to internal validity; placebo is an empty or non-active treatment such as a sugar pill; happens when you give participant the placebo but they respond as if you have given the, the real treatment
• Manipulation effect: is a process to verify theoretically salient variables; purpose is to verify measurement validity of whether the conditions of the experiment had the intended effects or the degree of its experimental realism
• A dry run or pilot test of the entire experimental procedure can be a manipulation check - look for potential flaws or misunderstandings
• Researchers can drop participants if they misunderstood a critical part of the experiment or saw through the deception
• Specify the universe to which we wish to generalize and consider providing evidence to support such a generalization
• Naturalistic generalization: can we generalize accurately from what we learn in an artificially created, controlled lab setting to real life, need to consider mundane realism and reactivity
• Mundane realism: asks whether an experiment or situation is like the real world
• Reactivity: is the effect of people responding because they are aware that they are in a study
-participants may act differently in an experiment than in real life because they know someone is studying them
-Hawthorne Effect: is a specific type of reactivity- workers did no respond to the treatment but to the additional attention they received from being part of the experiment and knowing that they were being watched
-Most likely to happen in a highly controlled experiment in which the research participants know that an experimenter has created the conditions and is observing their behaviors or responses
• Theoretical Generalization: asks whether we can accurately generalize from the concepts and relations in an abstract theory that we wish to test to a set of measures and arrangement of activities in a specific experiment
-difficult because it includes: experimental realism, measurement validity, and control confounding variables
• Experimental realism: impact of an experimental treatment or setting on people and it occurs when participants are caught up in the experiment and are truly influenced by it
For example, one might ask a group of persons to judge how closely 25 different items come to measuring self-esteem. Then, one might select the 10 items that received the highest average scores for having content validity with self-esteem. It can help find the best questions to ask to measure an abstract concept. It does not specify how a question or set of questions should be formatted on a questionnaire.

used for situations when we are interested in something with many ordinal aspects but would like a measure that combines all information into a single interval-level continuum
-Individual judgments cluster around a single most common response
-normal distribution
-Examine the findings of the statements on an underlying continuum and keep some statements based on two factors: agreement among the judges or the statement's location on a range of possible values
-The final set of statements is a measurement scale that spans a range of values
-Keep the statements with the highest between judge agreement or interrater reliability as well as statements that represent the entire range of values
-The method has four limitations:
1) It measures agreement or disagreement with statements but not the intensity of agreement or disagreement
2) It assumes that judges and others agree on where statements appear in a rating system
3) It is time consuming and costly
4) It is possible to get the same overall score in several ways because agreement or disagreement with different combinations of statements can produce the same average
1. Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations
-Slang is a kind of jargon within a subculture
-Abbreviations may be the same as for other things MSS or AAS
-Should use language of popular culture
2. Avoid Ambiguity, Confusion, and Vagueness
-Explicitly ask for exactly what you want them to answer (EX. What is your income?)
-Indefinite words or response categories are also sources of ambiguity (EX. What does jog regularly mean?)
3. Avoid Emotional Language and Prestige Bias
-Words with strong emotional connotations and issues connected to high status people can color how respondents answer survey questions
-Use neutral language
-Prestige Bias: occurs when questions include terms about highly prestigious person, group, or institution and a respondent's feelings toward the prestigious person or group overshadows how he or she answers the question
4. Avoid Double Barreled Questions
-Want each question to be about one and only one topic
-Double Barreled Question: consists of two or more questions mixed together
5. Avoid Leading Questions
-You want respondents to believe that all response choices are equally legitimate and never want them to become aware of an answer that you expect or want
-Leading or loaded question: is one that leads the respondent to one response over another by it's wording
6. Avoid Questions beyond Respondents Capabilities
-Asking something that respondents do not know creates confusion and inaccurate responses
-Clear and relevant questions increase accuracy and reduce errors
7. Avoid false Premises
-If you begin a question with a premise with which respondents disagree and offer choices regarding it respondents may become frustrated and not know how to answer
8. Avoid Asking about Distant Future Intentions
-Better to ask about current or recent attitudes and behavior
9. Avoid Double Negatives
-Double negatives are grammatically incorrect and cause confusion
10. Avoid Overlapping or unbalanced response Categories
-Make response categories or choices mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and balanced
-Mutually exclusive: means that the response categories do not overlap
-Exhaustive: means that every respondent has a choice
-Balanced: offer polar opposites and make it easy for them to see that the terms honesty and dishonesty have different meanings and connotations
• Attitudes of friends, physicians, therapists, and community members can also shape social aspects for the recovery process for victims in addition to opinions of police officers, prosecutors, juries, and judges
• Men might harm women when their sense of masculinity is threatened
• They anticipated that gender identity threats ill lead men to view female victims as more responsible in these settings while women will view male perpetrators as more responsible
• Rape usually perpetrated by someone the victim knows
• White participants were more likely then black participants to attribute responsibility to perpetrators and to believe victims should notify authorities
• Victims who have been drinking or who have voluntarily consumed drug, or dressed provocatively are thought to be more blameworthy
• People with traditional gender role orientations tend to express greater disapproval of sexual coercion
• Men and women are more supportive of coercive strategies during intense sexual activity, when activity in the past has occurred, or wen sex was agreed on and then rescinded
• Attractiveness also plays a role
• Sexual advances by wealthy individuals are viewed as more acceptable
• Threats to social identity have a number of negative consequences including decreased self esteem, depression, stress, and antisocial behavior
• Hegemonic masculinity is marked by a tendency for men to dominate other men and subordinate women
• Both men and women incur benefits from rejecting the feminine and embracing the masculine
• Hypothesis: explore relationship between threatened masculinity and attitudes about date rape and sexual coercion
• Undergraduates were used
• Given Gender Identity Survey - then given back random results
• Participants then read each vignette and were asked to assign a percentage of responsibility to each individual in the vignette as well as to other extraneous factors so that the overall assignment of responsibility = 100%
• Also asked to identify how likeable to individuals were and what the school should do
• Threatened men assigned more responsibility to the female in the situations
• Men who did not experience threat to their masculinity actually assigned the majority of the responsibility to the perpetrator
• Women did not react as strongly as men
• Threatened gender identity has a larger effect on men's date rape responses than women's responses