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39 terms

chapter 6 & 7

Summer class
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Appendicular
Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
Articulation
(anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)
Axial
fundamental division of our body. Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Bursa
a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
Diaphysis
the main (mid) section of a long bone
Epiphyseal
Growth plate.Cartilaage between epiphysis and diaphysis of long bones.
Fontanel
any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
Haversian system
structural unit of bone that receives nutrition and removes wastes
ligament
connects bone to bone
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation
osteoblast
a cell from which bone develops
osteoclast
cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue
paranasal sinus
- frontal
-ethmoid
-sphenoid
-maxillary
periosteum
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
suture
an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)
symphysis
Type of joint in which bones are joined by fibrocartilage
synovial fluied
A thick slippery fluid that prevents friction within joint cavities.
Actin
contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers, is pulled by myosin.
Antagonistic muscles
muscle pairs arranged to work against eachother to move a joint
creatine phosphate
an organic compound of creatine and phosphoric acid
depolarization
the process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive
fascia
a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
insertion
the point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves
isometric
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension increases while length remains constant
lactic acid
produced in muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues
muscle fatigue
inability of of a muscle to contract when stimulated caused by lack of oxygen, energy, and increased lactic acid
muscle sense
the awerness of body movements and of the location of body parts that results from proper coordination between tthe muscular and nervous system.
muscle tone
the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible
myoglobin
Protein of muscle that stores and transports oxygen. Contains iron.
myosin
a type of protein filament that acts as a motor protein with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
Nueromuscular junction
The termination of a motor neuron on the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber; the synapse is the microscopic space between the two structures.
Origin
less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle
oxygen debt
a cumulative deficit of oxygen resulting from intense exercise
polarization
The distribution of ions on either side of a membrane; in a resting neuron or muscle cells, sodium ions are more abundant of the outside the cell, giving the membrane a positive charge outside and a relative negative charge inside.
Prime mover
A muscle that is the primary actor in a given movement, that is, the muscle that produces the movement in muscle contraction.
sarcolemma
an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber
sarcomeres
protein filaments inside a myofibril are organized into repeating functional units
synergistic muscle
muscles having similar and mutualistic functions.
tendon
a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment