2.B Cell Membranes
Terms in this set (59)
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
When a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Due to entropy.
The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
The diffusion of small solutes through a selectively permeable membrane.
Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion. Going with a concentration gradient.
When a cell gets materials or excretes them by using its own energy, usually through ATP; going against a concentration gradient.
Describes a solution that has a greater concentration of total solute.
Describes a solution that has a lesser concentration of total solute.
Describes solutions that have an equal concentration of total solutes.
The pressure inside of a cell as a cell pushes itself against the cell wall.
This happens when a cell shrinks inside its cell wall while the cell wall remains intact.
This happens when water moves, but the amount within the cell is constant; no pressure builds.
A cell with a cell wall that has a reasonable amount of pressure but is healthy.
This happens when a cell swells until pressure bursts it, resulting in cell death.
This happens when a cell shrinks and shrivels; can result in cell death if severe.
The physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
This measurement has a maximum value of 0; it decreases as the concentration of a solute increases.
This measurement has a minimum value of 0 (when the solution is open to the environment); it increases as pressure increases.
A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
Molecules are said to be this when it has regions that are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
fluid mosaic model
Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
Transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
Integral proteins that span the membrane.
The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.
An exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes.
A protein built into the membrane with active site exposed.
The function of membrane proteins in which some glycoproteins serve as ID tags that are recognized by membrane proteins of other cells.
Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to lipids.
Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins.
A membrane protein that is responsible for moving hydrophilic substances from one side to the other.
A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that has a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel.
A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins.
A membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that holds onto molecules and changes their shapes in a way that shuttles them across the membrane.
A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.
The ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water; depends partly on concentration of nonpenetrating solutes relative to inside of cell.
The control of water balance.
Passive diffusion that is aided by transport proteins, but that does not require cellular energy.
The voltage of a plasma membrane.
The combination of forces that acts on membrane potential.
A protein channel in a cell membrane that opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus.
An electrogenic pump that works largely with H+ ions.
The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Occurs when a cell secretes certain biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
Occurs when a cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell "gulps" droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles.
Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus.
A netlike array of protein filaments lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope; it helps maintain the shape of the nucleus.
A network of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
Small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell.
Synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones, and helps detoxify drugs and toxins.
A network of interconnected membranous sacs in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm; covered with ribosomes that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another.
Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
Strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria.
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2.C Feedback Mechanisms
2.D Effects of Environment
2.E Timing and Coordination
2.A Energy Input