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Classical China and India: WH9H Test Unit 2
Terms in this set (56)
What was a main teaching of the Buddha?
Reject all possessions and live a minimalistic life
New form of Buddhism that was geared towards ordinary people who did not want to live a completely minimalistic life
Describe the beliefs of Mahayana Buddhism.
Nirvana was a state of awareness open to anyone in any walk of life, Buddha was a god
Original form of Buddhism that maintained the strict teachings about the monastic life and sacrificing possessions and family in the quest for nirvana
Individuals who postponed enlightenment to share their surplus karma with average people trying to attain nirvana
What form of Buddhism was identified with the Silk Road?
What caste was Buddhism attractive to?
Why was Buddhism attractive to the Vaishya caste?
They believed that buying and selling was their dharma and benefitting from Buddhism's commercial advantages allowed them to better perform their dharma
What were some effects of Ashoka's rule on the spread of Buddhism?
He sponsored monks and missionaries, commissioned the building of Buddhist monasteries, and spread Buddhist teachings in writing
How did Buddhism unite people?
It applied to virtually everyone and helped to bridge kinship or ethnic differences
How did the Chinese use Buddhism to enhance their rule?
Emperor Wen claimed that Buddha had entrusted him with the rule of China to gain loyalty
Why was the monastic life offensive for Chinese?
It ran contrary to Confucian notions of proper human relationships
What are the three characteristics of a golden age?
Peace, prosperity, and high cultural achievement
First ruler of the Gupta Empire
What were the years in which the Gupta Empire maintained its rule?
320 to 550 CE
What kind of government did the Gupta Empire have?
A centralized government
In what ways were the Gupta and Mauryan Empires similar?
They both had a centralized government and a council helped the king make decisions
How did the Guptas give local areas a sense of independence?
The empire was divided into provinces where town leaders could make decisions for each individual province
How were developments in the arts and sciences able to happen?
During a time of peace and prosperity, people can focus their attention on creative matters
What were some mathematical advancements of the Gupta Dynasty that are present in modern day society?
Creation of the numeral system, concept of zero, decimal system
What was the most important development in public works during the Gupta Dynasty?
A complex road system with signs, ditches and canals (to prevent flooding)
Method of writing in India during the Gupta Dynasty
What were some developments in literature in the Gupta Dynasty?
Poetry, fables, folktales, plays, comedies, dramas, and books on religion and law
What were some artistic developments in the Gupta Dynasty?
Painting, dancing, music, and sculpture making taught at schools; art was often used to highlight life at the time
Founder of the Mauryan Dynasty who first unified India
How did Chandragupta Maurya unify India?
He used his strong army to overthrow the rulers of each of the small kingdoms that India was divided into
What did Chandragupta Maurya do to maintain his rule in India?
He created a strong central government and an efficient bureaucracy
Name specific examples of Chandragupta's actions that he took to maintain a strong rule in India.
He wrote laws, built and maintained roads, bridges and irrigation systems, and made sure farmers had water for crops
Ruler of the Mauryan Empire that embraced the Buddhist concept of non-violence
What steps did Ashoka take to embrace Buddhist ideals in his rule?
Worked for the welfare of his subjects by planting trees and digging wells
How did Ashoka's policy of non-violence lead to the fall of the Mauryan Empire?
The army's efficiency was undermined, allowing various revolts and invasions to take place
What were the four goals of Ashoka's edicts?
Promoted Buddhist values, promoted general welfare, maintained justice and maintained security
Ruler that established the Han Dynasty in 206 BCE
How did Liu Bang recruit government jobs?
By a system of ability and merit rather than birth right or wealth; people were required to take a written exam
Who was higher in the social hierarchy, farmers or merchants, and why?
Farmers- their work was considered more useful since the wealthy depended on their products
Practice of showing great respect to elders and ancestors; major theme of Confucianism (filial piety), prominent in the Han Dynasty
How was Buddhism brought to Han China?
From travelers on the Silk Road
The main religion of the Han Dynasty; Han Wudi made it the universal belief system
What kind of government did Han China have?
A central bureaucracy
What position was the head of the Han China government?
Trade route that was a major constituent of Han China culture; provided an economic stimulus and increased cultural diffusion
What were some of the impacts that the invention of paper had on the Han Dynasty?
There was an increase in literature, new methods of writing, and spread of ideas and religious texts
What was an impact that the invention of the wheelbarrow had on the Han Dynasty?
Efficient transportation of goods
Name the factors that led to economic success in Han China.
Opening up of the Silk Road, farming efficiency, irrigation projects, new inventions
True or False: The Han Dynasty was the largest empire to date at the time.
True! Good job Han Dynasty, their rule lasted for more than 400 years.
What kind of items were being traded on the Silk Road?
True or False: During the Han Dynasty, there were multiple religious ideologies in popular practice.
False! Other ideologies were banned and only Confucianism was allowed to be practiced.
How did the Han Dynasty establish power?
The Qin Dynasty lost the Mandate of Heaven
Why did the Han Dynasty fall?
They lost the Mandate of Heaven due to a series of weak rulers
What were some of the technological developments in the Han Dynasty?
Collar harness, wheelbarrow, paper, paper money, junk ship
What was the possession of silk indicative of?
What were the importance of tomb walls?
Tomb walls were decorated with murals that depicted the afterlife, highlighted one's life, and show honor and achievements.
Qin Shi Huangdi
Emperor of the Qin Dynasty
Shi Huang Di created a strict centralized government using what ideology?
What does the Great Wall of China reveal about the Qin Dynasty?
The empire was well organized, centralized, and territorial
Under what empire was the Mandate of Heaven created?
The Zhou Dynasty
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