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20 terms

Fuggi Final Exam Study Guide 1 2013

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Aristotle
a Greek philosopher who was one of the first people to classify organisms
binomial nomenclature
two word naming system developed by Linnaeus
carrier
an individual who has the gene for a genetic disorder but does not express the trait
crossing- over
the exchange of corresponding pieces of DNA between like (homologous) chromosomes
DNA
molecule that contains the information needed by a cell to direct its activities and determine its characteristics
gametes
sex cells which are produced during the process of meiosis
genotype
an organism's genetic make-up or allele combination- its "letter" code Example : Tt
genus
first word of a scientific name
Gregor Mendel
concluded that traits (genes) are inherited through the passing of factors (genes) from parents to offspring
heterozygous
an organism with different alleles for a trait, represented by one upper-case letter and one lower-case letter
karyotype
a chart showing pairs of chromosomes
Linnaeus
first scientist to give species a 2-word scientific name
meiosis
produces four new genetically different cells that have half the number of chromosomes that an organism's body cells have
metaphase
chromosomes line up in the "middle"
pedigree
a family record that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
phenotype
an organism's physical characterictics or visible trait. Example: tall
reproductive cell (sperm, egg)
contains half the chromosomes
sex-linked traits
found on the 23rd pair of chromosomes
taxonomy
the identification and classification of organisms
upper-case letter
used to indicate a dominate allele in Punnett squares