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the probability that a coin will come up tails when flipped

artificial selection

a farmer breeds only his best livestock

base pairing of A


base pairing of C


class Mammalia

animals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young

common ancestry

evidenced by similar genes

correct order of the biological taxons

kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

DNA molecule

long strands, shaped like a double helix (spiral staircase)

DNA replication of a strand that has bases CTAG

produces a strand that has bases GATC

dominant allele

one whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

explanation for the observation that females rarely get the disease hemophilia

a female's good X is dominant over her bad X


example of a sex-linked trait because it is found on the 23rd pair of chromosomes


organisms that have two identical (same) alleles

homozygous recessive

an organism that has two identical recessive allels for a trait

organism classification

requires both large and small categories


a family record that indicates the occurrence of a trait

principle of dominance

states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

reasons that biologists use a classification system to group organisms

organisms are numerous, diverse, and often have many different common names

scientific name

is the same for an organism all over the world and will have one genus name followed by one species identifier

second word in a scientific name

tells you the species

shape of birds beaks

one structural adaptation that Darwin found on the Galapagos Islands

South America, Galapagos Islands

place where Charles Darwin made many observations during his voyage on the Beagle

variation and natural selection

basis of Darwin's theory of evolution

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