76 terms

AP Art History: Greek and Roman Art

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Athenian Agora. Archaic through Hellenistic Greek. 600 BCE - 150 CE. Plan.
Agora
In Ancient Greece, a public or open space used for assemblies and markets.
Archaic Greece (600 - 480 BCE)
A period of Greek art symbolized by tense sculptures with uneasy smiles, unnatural stances, stiff posture, the "Archaic Smile," Includes Kouros and Kore stone figures and vase painting.
Classical Greece (480 - 323 BCE)
A peak of Greek art and architecture, symbolized by idealized figures which exemplify order and harmony. More relaxed face and stance, head often tilted to the side.
Hellenistic Greece (323 - 31 BCE)
A period of Greek art symbolized by works of art which represent movement, emotion, theatricality, drama and realism.
Anavysos Kouros. Archaic Greek. 530 BCE. Marble with remnants of paint.
Peplos Kore from the Acropolis. Archaic Greek. 530 BCE. Marble, painted details.
Acropolis
A citadel or fortified part of an Ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill.
Kouros vs. Kore
While both Greek marble free-standing statues of human figures, with a frontal stance, left foot forward, clenched fists, and a grimace known as an "Archaic Smile," a Kouros is a nude male youth, while a Kore is a clothed woman.
Niobides Krater. Anonymous vase painter known as the Niobid Painter. 460 - 450 BCE. Classical Greece. Clay, red-figure technique (white highlights).
Krater
Used for mixing wine and water, since Ancient Greeks never drank pure water.
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Polykleitos. Original 450 - 440 BCE. Classical Greece. Roman copy (marble); Greek original (bronze).
Acropolis Plan. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Parthenon. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Helios, Horses, and Dionysus. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Temple of Athena Nike. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Doric Order (Architecture)
From the bottom-up:
Stereobate (stairs)
Stylobate (floor)
Column
Shaft
Capitol
Architrave
Frieze
Triglyphs, Metopes
Pediment
Cornice
(Entablature)
Sterobate
Stairs
Stylobate
Floor
Frieze
The decorative half of the entablature (the other half being the pediment/cornice) which is a horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration.
Entablature
The horizontal, continuous, upper section of Ancient Greek Architecture that rests on the main columns; encompasses the architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Metopes
The rectangular architectural element that fills the space between the triglyphs; above the architrave.
Triglyphs
Alternating pattern with the metopes, within the frieze.
Pediment
The triangular upper part of the front of a building in classical style. Surrounded by the cornice.
Victory adjusting her sandal. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Plaque of the Ergastines. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. 447 - 424 BCE. Marble.
Peristyle
Columns surround the perimeter.
A type of Greek and Roman architecture in which a continuous porch, formed by a row of columns surrounding the inside perimeter of the building or courtyard.
Prostyle
Columns are in the front of the building, in one face of the facade.
Omphiprostyle
Columns are in the front and back of the building.
Facade
The primary face of the building, especially the principal front that looks onto a street or open space.
Grave Stele of Hegeso. Attributed to Kallimachos. 410 BCE. Marble and paint.
Winged Victory of Samothrace. Hellenistic Greek. 190 BCE. Marble.
Great Alter of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Asia minor (present-day Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. 175 BCE. Marble.
Great Alter of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Asia minor (present-day Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. 175 BCE. Marble.
Great Alter of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon PLAN. Asia minor (present-day Turkey). Hellenistic Greek. 175 BCE. Marble.
(AP picture rotated 90 degrees to the right)
Alexander Mosiac from the House of Faun. Pompeii, Italy. Republican Roman. 100 BCE. Mosiac. Roman copy of Greek.
Seated Boxer. Hellenistic Greek. 100 BCE. Bronze.
Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Etruscan. 520 BCE. Terra Cotta.
Etruscans
A lost civilization of ancient Italy that set the stage for ancient Roman art, as well as the Italian Renaissance. A very happy people, known for providing the link between Greek and Roman art (predominantly during the Archaic Greek period). Fortunately for us, they cared much about equipping their dead with necessary extravagance for the after life. 700 - 509 BCE.
Etruscan influence on Ancient Rome
Teaching the Romans the alphabet, and spreading literacy throughout the Italian peninsula, the Etruscans had a major influence on Ancient Roman art and culture: gladiator apparel, hydraulic engineering, temple design, religious ritual
Temple of Minerva. Veii (near Rome), Italy. Vulca. 510 - 500 BCE. Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa (volcanic rock) and terra cotta sculpture.
(Etruscan)
Sculpture of Apollo. Veii (near Rome), Italy. 510 - 500 BCE. Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa (volcanic rock) and terra cotta sculpture.
(Etruscan)
Tomb of the Triclinium. Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. 480 - 470 BCE. Tufa and fresco.
Triclinium
Kitchen area; a dining table with couches along three sides used in Ancient Rome.
House of the Vetti. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Rome. 2nd century BCE; rebuilt 62- 79 CE. Cut stone and fresco.
House of the Vetti. PLAN. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Rome. 2nd century BCE; rebuilt 62- 79 CE. Cut stone and fresco.
House of the Vetti. Pompeii, Italy. Imperial Rome. 2nd century BCE; rebuilt 62- 79 CE. Cut stone and fresco.
Head of a Roman Patrician. Republican Rome. 75 - 50 BCE. Marble.
Augustus of Prima Porta. Imperial Roman. Early 1st century CE. Marble.
Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater). Rome, Italy. Imperial Rome. 70 - 80 CE. Stone and concrete.
Buttressing
Barrell Vault
Groin Vault
Groin Vault, Pointed Arch, and Ribs
Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets. 106 - 112 CE. Brick and concrete.
Basilica Ulpia. Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets. 106 - 112 CE. Brick and concrete.
Forum
A place, meeting, or medium in Ancient Rome where ideas and views on a particular issue can be exchanged.
Basilica
A huge hall. Emerged in Rome, concrete.
Tabarne
A rental room of a house that opened up to a market in which people could sell their goods.
Clerestory
The decorated upper windows of the nave, choir, or transept; admits light to the central parts of the church.
Trajan Markets. Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets. 106 - 112 CE. Brick and concrete.
Column of Trajan. Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets. 106 - 112 CE. Brick and concrete.
Apse, Transept, and Nave
Apse - The semicircular arch, ususally with a domed roof, vaulted at the end of the church. Contains the alter.

Transept - In a cross-shaped church, the the two parts of the church that form the arms of the cross, projecting right angles with the nave.

Nave - The place of conjugation within the church, intended to accommodate the most people.
Pantheon. Imperial Rome. 118 -125 CE. Concrete with stone facing.
Pantheon. Imperial Rome. 118 -125 CE. Concrete with stone facing.
Oculus
A circular opening in the center apex of a dome or in a wall.
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Late Imperial Roman. 250 CE. Marble.
Roman Columns (in order)
Tuscan,
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (main styles)
Composite
Tuscan Column
Doric Column
Ionic Column
Corinthian Column
Composite Column
Atrium
An open-roofed entrance hall or interior courtyard in a Roman house.
Roman Architectural Features
Heated baths
Concrete (Colosseum, Pantheon)
Apartment Houses
Pilaster
Columns with arches (Groin Vault)
Mosiac (Alexander Mosiac from the House of Faun)
Basilica (Basilica Ulpia. Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy)
City Planning
Forum's (Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy)
Atrium
Barrel Vaulting (Colosseum)
Groin Vaulting (Colosseum)
Stadium (Colosseum / Flavian Amphitheater)
Amphitheater (Colosseum / Flavian Amphitheater)
Triumphal Arch
Greek Architectural Features
Columns (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)
Rectangular Temples (Prostyle/Peristyle)
Post and Lintel
Pediment
Marble
Stoa (roofed colonnade)
Acropolis (Acropolis, 530 BCE)
Frieze
Caryatids (sculptures as columns)
Exterior sculptures
Agora (Athenian Agora)