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Greece and Rome Study Guide
Terms in this set (23)
Commanded the Roman government and army
Controlled Roman policies and made laws
Written laws that gave free citizens protection of the law
Wars fought between Rome and Carthage for control over Sicily
Military leader who joined forces with Crassus and Pompey. He was elected consul in 59 BC
What role did Julius Caesar play in the decline of the republic and the rise of the empire?
Caesar was the first person to attempt a dictatorship and try to rule alone. Although he was not successful in completely ending a republic, he began to steer Rome away from that form of government, and introduced an empire.
What actions did Augustus take that helped bring about stability and prosperity - ultimately the Pax Romana.
Augustus was a very capable ruler and he set up an efficient and strong central government with paid civil servants, a tax collection, and postal service.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire
Why did the early Christians face persecution from the Romans?
Christianity went against many of the Roman gods beliefs, because those who followed it were considered less loyal towards Rome. Emperors would have churches and scriptures destroyed, and clergy would be put into prison.
What allowed Christianity to spread throughout the Roman Empire?
A Roman citizen, Paul, had a vision about Jesus and began to preach about him, which allowed word to spread in the Empire. The Romans were also treating the Jews very badly, so they looked to someone who was going to give them hope in a time of need. Lastly, Jesus' message was appealing to the poor, and lower classes, because they didn't have to be in a certain social class to be welcome in the religion.
What factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire?
-Tribes attacked boundaries
-Economy suffered inflation
-Overworked soil made it hard to farm
-military was less disiplined and loyal
-Ruled by a king or queen
-Ruled by a group of citizens
-Based on money or ability
-Ruled by nobility
-Based on wealth, rank, and ties
-Citizens have the power
-Based on citizenship
-Citizens could vote
Where three leaders share control of the government
In what ways did Greece's location by the sea and its mountainous topography affect its development?
Peninsula- Was located around the sea so it was easy for it to trade for resources
Mountains- rocky soil made it hard to farm, and the city-states were split up
Had lots of small islands surrounding it
How do the cultures of Athens and Sparta compare to one another?
Athens had one of the first democracies, and they had rule by the people, who could directly make political decisions. While in Sparta, all citizens were part of an assembly, and a group of elders called the Council of elders would propose a set of laws the assembly would vote on. They were similar because they were both Greek city-states.
How did the Persian Wars affect the Greek people, especially the Athenians?
The Persian wars began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia, and the Persians eventually conquered this area. Ionia had revolted against the Persians, and Athens had tried to help, though the Persians attacked Athens. Athens won by using a new fighting method where soldiers stand side by side holding a sword and a shield. Ten years later, the Persians came back to defeat Athens. The other colonies were helping defend the Persians while Athens evacuated the city, and Sparta was the only troop that didn't back down. During their last fight in the water, the greeks had ships that could better maneuver the water than the Persians, and Athens again won. In result, Athens became head of the Delian League, a group of Greek city states, and Athens began to enter its Golden Age.
Who were the three renowned philosophers of ancient Greece and what were their major contributions to the field?
Socrates -Inspired people to question their moral character and believed truth and justice didn't have standards
Plato -Wrote books about philosophy and is important to Europe's philoshic thought
Aristotle -Questioned human belief, thought, and knowledge, and developed methods to solve problems in psychology, physics, and biology
What were some of the main achievements of the scientists of the Hellenistic period?
-Astronomy, theories about the sun and the earth were developed
-Math, the basics of geometry
Zeno-Claimed people should live harmonic lives and follow God's natural laws
Epicurus-Taught that gods didn't have interest in humans, and his main goal was to reach harmony in mind and body.
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent city-state.
What were the roles of Solon, Cleisthenes, and Pericles?
Solon-Created four social classes based on wealth, and they were not hereditary. He outlawed debt slavery, and established a faire code of law
Cleisthenes-Increased power of assembly and decreased power of nobility. He basically founded the democratic government, and gave power to non-wealthy people
Pericles-He was a good military general, patron of the arts, and politician.
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