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US History Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (30)
What are natural rights?
A) who developed this theory?
B) Give an example of how the idea of natural rights has been used in US history
Life, Liberty, and Property (G-d given rights)
A) John Locke
B)You're entitled to your property (used for pro-slavery usage)
What is the Magna Carta? Why is it important to US History?
a contract between the ruler and it's people in an attempt to limit the powers of the monarchy. important: people in charge have limited power
Why are the following places important?
A) first place where colonists came over to America and one of the first colony to be successful (1607)
B) Colony in Massachusetts settled by the "Pilgrams" they had the first written compact, the Mayflower Compact, to set up a government before arriving in America (1620)
Who were the Puritans?
from the Church of England, wanted to return to Christianity to a "pure" biblical root; they liked the ideas of John Calvin; didn't like the direction the Church of England was headed
What was the House of Burgesses?
the seat of power was so far away, local people wanted more control over their lives. important: served as the basis for the colonists feeling more independent (REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT)
Why is each of the following wars important? What caused each war? What were the key events during each war? What was the result of each war?
A) French and Indian Wars
B) American Revolution
C) War of 1812
D) Mexican-American War
E) Civil War
A) imp: British pushing the French out of North America and away from the British colonies (French were allied with the Indians); cause: want of land, expanded territory, POWER; key: takeover of Fort Duquesne by the British which allows control of trade (just off of the Mississippi River) result: British won ->left a huge war debt and the colonists felt empowered
B) imp: establishes America as an independent sovereign nation; cause: TAXATION, lack of representation, America not being recognized as a separate nation; key: Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre, First Continental Congress; result: America
C) imp: America was trying to be neutral after gaining its on sovereignty; cause: impressment of American sailors and blockage of trade; key: USS Chesapeake v. HMS Leopard, policy of neutrality and provoctions; result: America -> felt good and strong (Britain had just beaten Napolean)
D) imp: allowed America to have western expansion; cause: Austin was bringing in too may Americans into Texas who weren't becoming Mexican citizens or abiding by Mexican laws; key: the Alamo (American-Texans stuck in the Alamo surrounded by Santa Anna army); result: America -> Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (gave control of Texas to US)
E) imp: slavery was abolished, cause: secession of the South and slavery; key: Emancipation Proclamation, Gettysburg, Gettysburg Address; result: Union (North) -> South allowed back into the Union and slavery abolished
What events led to the American Revolution?
Taxation, lack of representation, America not being recognized as a separate nation
Who were the American leaders of the rebellion against Britain?
George Washington, Baron Friedrich von Steuben, Henry Knoow, Benedict Arnold (traitor), Thomas Jefferson, John Adams
What did each of the following people do during the American Revolution?
A) George Washington
B) Thomas Jefferson
C) John Adams
A) translates poorly at Fort Duquesne and gets into and argument with French, after Braddock is killed in battle he leads the men back to Virginia (redeems himself), at Valley Forge gains his men's respect by staying with them throughout the tough conditions
B) delegate for the second continental congress, wrote the Declaration of Independence, governor of Virginia
C) negotiated the Treaty of Paris for America, a Son of Liberty
What is the importance of each event?
A) Battle at Lexington and Concord
B) Winter at Valley Forge
C) Siege at Yorktown
A) first battle of the American Revolutionary War, "first shot heard around the world," victory for the Patriots
B) much military discipline, George Washington instilled the men with honor and boosted their moral
C) last battle of the war
What is the significance of each of these documents?
A) Olive Branch Petition
B) Declaration of Independence
C) Articles of Confederation
D) United States Constitution
E) Common Sense
F) Northwest Ordinance
G) Bill of Rights
H) Declaration of Sentiments
A) final attempt by Second Continental Congress to reach a peaceful settlement with Britain
B) set forth the reasons explaining why the United States was breaking away from Great Britain
C) first constitution of America, declared U.S. was an independent nation
D) defines framework for country's law and order, first written down constitution
E) written by Thomas Paine, placed blame for the suffering of the colonies on King George the Third
F) opened vast western land areas to development by the United States
G) first ten amendments of Constitution, placed to protect infringement of rights
H) document which demanded equality with men before law
What were some of the problems with the Articles of Confederation?
-not a balance of powers
-weak federal government
A) Why was it called?
B) Who was there? Who was not there?
C) What did they do at the Convention?
D) What were some of the compromises agreed to at the Convention?
A) to consider mending the Articles of Confederation
B) all colonies except Georgia
C) discuss and argue about how the governments going to be formed
D) The Great Compromise : 2 house system (Senate= 2 per state and Congress= by population #s) and 3/5 compromise= each slave counts for 3/5 of a white man
A) What is the preamble?
B) Legislative Branch: What is the role of each House? Who is eligible to be in each House? How many Senators and Representatives are there from each state?
1. House of Representatives
C) Executive Branch:
1. What is the main function of this branch?
2. What is a cabinet?
D) Judicial Branch:
1. What is the main function of this branch?
2. What is judicial review?
3. What is habeas corpus?
E) What are checks and balances?
F) What is the "Elastic Clause"
A)"We the People of the United States, in
order to form a more perfect union,
establish justice, ensure domestic
tranquility, provide for the common
defense, promote the blessings of liberty
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain
and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America."
B) make laws, collect taxes, coin money, regulate trade; upper and lower (Senate= 2 people and House of Representatives= by population) eligible: US citizens (at this time white male owning property)
C) cabinet: people who advise the president; function: carry out laws and serve as commanders of armed forces and have relations with other countries
D) Function: hear court cases, judge constitutionality of laws and rule on disputes between states; judicial review: gives the supreme court the right to decide if acts of the President or laws passed by Congress are unconstitutional; habeas corpus: show me the body/ proof
E) making sure each branch doesn't take too much power
F) section of the Constitution that
gives Congress the power to
make all "necessary and proper"
Bill of Rights: What is the main idea of these amendments?
A) 1st Amendment
B) 5th Amendment
C) 7th Amendment
D) 8th Amendment
A) Freedom of Speech, religion, and expression
B) rights of the accused - a person accused of a crime is entitled to certain rights
C) right to a jury
D)Forbids cruel and unusual punishment and unreasonable bail
What is democracy? What are the different forms of democracy?
you elect your representatives; Athenian democracy, Classical Republicanism
What is popular sovereignty?
majority rules and people are the source of the government's power
A) What precedents did he establish?
B) What did he say in his Farewell Address?
A) he didn't reestablish a monarchy by leaving after his service
B) stay neutral
A) What was the XYZ Affair?
B) What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
A) Adams tries to avoid war with France but the French diplomats demanded bribes to free the American Acts
B) acts aimed at silencing the Presidents criticks
A) What is laissez faire?
B) How and why did we acquire the Louisiana Territory?
C) What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
B) we bought it from the French
C) discover the west and explore, find the North west passage (doesn't exist)
Who were Tecumseh and The Prophet?
Tecumseh: young Shawnee chief from Ohio Valley
The Prophet: "Tenskwatawa" brother of Tecumseh, apparently taken to heaven where he got a new outlook on life
Who were the War Hawks? What did they want?
agitated for war in congress, wanted to gain Canada territory and have a war
War of 1812:
A) What were the causes of the war?
B) What were the important events during the war?
C) What were the results of the war?
A) American boats and sailors kept being captured by the British
B) embargo act, non-intercourse act
A) What important events occurred during his presidency?
B) Why is his wife famous?
A) the non-intercourse act is replaced, bank of the US closes
B) she saved important documents and George Washington painting during a fire
The Monroe Doctrine:
A) Who wrote the doctrine?
B) What did the Monroe Doctrine say?
A) President Monroe 1823
B) preventing European countries from meddling with Latin American politics which upholds George Washington's policy of neutrality and avoiding alliances
A) How did he become famous?
B) Why was his presidency different from the earlier ones?
C) What was the Trail of Tears?
A) War Hero: defeated British at New Orleans; also known for relocating the Indians, Nulification Crisis
B) gets rid of the Spoil System
C) where the Indians were forced even farther west (Cherokee) onto reservations
A) Why are the following people important?
1. John Jacob Astor
2. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
3. Stephen Austin
B) How did Texas become part of the United States?
1. What was the Bear Flag Revolt?
2. When, where, and why did the Gold Rush start?
D) What was gained by the Mexican Cession?
E) What was the purpose of the Gadsden Purchase?
F) Who settled Utah?
A1) "Mountain Men" explored Oregon Country
A2) Methodist Missionaries who built missions and brought many people west saying how great it was
A3) brought 300+ families west into Texas, entrepreneur
B) Santa Anna forced to sign a treaty recognizing Texas independence, Polk annexes Texas (it took so long because they were scared of war with Mexico and the controversy of the slave issue)
C1) led by Stephen Cearny came along and occupied San Francisco and headed into California and occupied San Diego and Los Angeles
C2) 1849, Sacramento, people found gold so many came out west
D) California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico
E) to expand the mainland and build a transcontinental railroad (never completed)
F) Bringham Young (Mormon)
A) What is the Second Great Awakening?
B) How were the following people involved in the Reform Era?
1. Horace Mann
2. John Quincy Adams
3. Frederick Douglass
4. William Lloyd Garrison
5. Harriet Tubman
6. Sojourner Truth
7. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
8. Harriet Beecher Stowe
9. Lucretia Mott
10. Susan B. Anthony
C) Abolition of slavery
1. What was the purpose of the Underground Railroad?
2. Who were the leaders of this movement?
3. Why was Uncle Tom's Cabin an important book?
D) Women's Movement
1. Why is Seneca Falls important?
2. What was the Declaration of Sentiments?
3. When did women gain the right to vote?
A) in the earlier 1800s an "Evangelical movement" (the country became quite religious)
B1) "Father of American Education" revolutionized the common school system, said education was a natural right for every child therefore its necessary for the state to insure an education for every child
B3) a black abolitionists who fought for slave and women's rights
B4)editer of the Liberator, thought all slaves should be freed immediately
B5) led many slaves to freedom up north (she herself was black)
B6) preached for womens rights at Seneca Falls and was a black abolitionist
B7) leader in the women's rights and abolition movement, helped organize the Seneca Falls women's rights convention
B8) she wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which showed slave experiences first han
B9) one of the first women to fight for women and abilition rights
B10) worked for women's rights
C1) free slaves to the north
C2) Harriet Tubman
D1) first women's rights convention
D2) a document that showed the discrimination of women and how to fix it
D3) in 1920 under the 19th Amendment
A) What events led up to the Civil War?
B) What were the advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South?
C) President Lincoln
1. What was his attitude about slavery?
2. What did he think about secession?
3. What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
4. What was the Gettysburg Address?
5. How did he die?
D) Why are these events important?
1. Battle of Fort Sumter
2. Battle of Shiloh
3. Battle of Gettysburg
4. Battle of First Bull Run
E) Why were these people important?
1. Robert E. Lee
2. Ulysses S. Grant
3. Jefferson Davis
F) How did the war end?
A) What were the elements of the various Reconstruction plans?
B) Andrew Johnson:
1. What did he think of Reconstruction?
2. Why was he impeached?
C) What was the purpose of the Freedman's Bureau?
D) What did the three "Reconstruction Amendments" accomplish?
1. 13th Amendment
2. 14th Amendment
3. 15th Amendment
E) How were the rights of African-Americans limited during and after Reconstruction?
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