18 terms

Functional Groups

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Alkane
"backbone" or "skeleton" of all organic compounds; nonpolar (only single polar)
Alkene
carbon-carbon double bond; nonpolar
Alkyne
carbon-carbon triple bond
Arene (aromatic ring)
six-membered ring in which all atoms are forming "double" bonds with their neighboring atoms - all six atoms equally share the six electrons that form the double bonds; nonpolar
Alcohol
structurally related to water, but one hydrogen has been replaced by carbon. Polar like water, and can participate in hydrogen bonding as both proton donor and acceptor (carbon with an OH group)
Ether
structurally related to water, but BOTH hydrogens have been replaced by carbon. Much less polar than water and can participate in hydrogen bonding only as proton acceptor
Amine
structurally related to ammonia (NH3) but one or more hydrogens have been replaced by carbon. Polar like ammonia, and can participate in hydrogen bonding as both proton donor (if it has N-H) and acceptor
Thiol
structurally related to alcohols, but oxygen has been replaced by sulfur. Can be oxidized to disulfide (-S-S-). NONPOLAR, and it CANNOT participate in hydrogen bonding
Sulfide
structurally related to ethers, but oxygen has been replaced by sulfur. NONPOLAR, and it CANNOT participate in hydrogen bonding
Disulfide
two sulfur atoms are covalently bonded. NON-POLAR, and it CANNOT participate in hydrogen bonding
Aldehyde
carbonyl compound (contain C=O) with hydrogen bonded to C=O; can serve as an acceptor in hydrogen bonding; somewhat polar (formalydehyde is the simplest of the aldehydes)
Ketone
carbonyl compound with two carbons bonded to C=O; can serve as an acceptor in hydrogen bonding; somewhat polar
Carboxylic Acid
carbonyl compound with an OH bonded to the C=O; can serve as both donor and acceptor in hydrogen bonding; O-H is very acidic and polar (proton is being lost)
Ester
results from the condensation of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, with loss of water (the reaction is reversible, so esters can be can be hydrolyzed to give carboxylic acids and alcohols); somewhat polar
Amide
results from the condensation of a carboxylic acid and an amine, with loss of water (amides can be can be hydrolyzed to give carboxylic acids and amines, but with much less ease than esters - the strength of amides makes them the best suited for being the structural and functional backbone of biochemistry: proteins); somewhat polar
Thioester
structurally related to esters, but the saturated oxygen has been replaced by sulfur. Somewhat polar
Acid Anhydride
results from the condensation of two carboxylic acids, with loss of water (anhydrides can be can be hydrolyzed to give two carboxylic acids and serve as acyl transfer agents); somewhat polar
Acyl Phosphate
structurally related to acid anhydrides, but one of the carbonyl carbons has been replaced by highly-oxidized phosphorus. Very polar