Editing, chapter 8 of Looking At Movies
Terms in this set (67)
The process (art and technique) by which individual shots are assembled into a cinematic whole. the basic creative force of cinema
Cutting and Splicing
Before digital editing, a manual process editors used to cut, glue, and tape film together. The actual joining together of two shots. The editor must first cut (or splice) each shot from its respective roll of film before gluing or taping all the shots together.
The joining together of two shots; cutting and splicing
Ability to join shots and produce a meaning that does not exist in either one of the individual shots
Basic building block of film editing. One uninterrupted run of the camera
An indication of the number of times a particular shot is filmed
Editing's most fundamental tool. A direct change from one shot to another. The precise moment when shot A ends and shot B begins
Lev Kuleshov conducted experiments to determine the effects of film on the audience. The concept developed highlights the tendency of viewers to interpret shots in relation to surrounding shots.
The juxtaposition of individual shots to create new meaning. The process fragments and reassembles footage to manipulate the viewers perception and understanding.
The collaborator who decides what shots to use and how to assemble them into a cinematic whole
The editor is responsible for managing the following aspects of the final film:
* Spatial relationships between shots
* Temporal relationships between shots
* Overall rhythm of the film
aka space, time, and pace
specifies how some object is located in space in relation to some reference object.
Any single shot limits our sense of space to the framing of that shot. As other shots are placed in close proximity to that original shot, our sense of the overall space in which the characters are moving shifts and expands
the timing between a factor and an outcome which can be used to assign causality to a relationship.
The interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots that show what happened earlier in the story; used in almost all movie genres
The interruption of present action by a shot or series of shots that show images form the plot's future
An omission between one thing and another
In filmmaking, generally an omission of time—the time that separates one shot from another—to create dramatic or comedic impact. editing technique, skips small chunk of time
The process or technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film to form a continuous whole.
Editing determines the duration of a shot. The editor controls a film's rhythm by varying the duration of the shots.
A style of editing (now dominant throughout the world) that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers to what they see on the screen. Continuity editing ensures the flow from shot to shot; creates a rhythm based on the relationship between cinematic space and cinematic time; creates filmic unity (beginning, middle, and end); and establishes and resolves a problem. In short, continuity editing tells a story as clearly and coherently as possible. Compare discontinuity editing.
Breaks the rules of continuity editing by seeking transitions that are not smooth, contiguous, or coherent. There may be mismatches in location, direction, or speed of movement, lighting, mise-en-scène, camera angles, and even color.
Master Scene Technique
Based on the principle of coverage, meaning that a scene is photographed with a variety of individual shots running from a long shot to a close-up
A single scene with a long shot that covers characters and action in one continuous shot.
"establishing" or cover shot. ordinarily serves as a foundation for & begins a sequence by showing the location of ensuing action. also called cover shots because the editor can repeat them later in the film to remind the audience of the location, thus "covering" the director by avoiding the need to reshoot.
The 180* Rule (Axis of Action)
An imaginary horizontal line between the main objects or characters being photographed to determine where the camera should be placed to preserve screen direction continuity. The fundamental means by which filmmakers maintain consistent screen direction, orienting the viewer and ensuring a sense of the cinematic space in which the action occurs. The system assumes three things: (a) the action within a scene will always advance along a straight line, either from left to right or from right to left of the frame; (b) the camera will remain consistently on one side of that action; and (c) everyone on the production set will understand and adhere to this system.
Techniques to Maintain Continuity
* Shot/reverse shot
* Match cuts
* Eye-line match
* Point-of-view editing
The camera switches between shots of different characters
One of the most prevalent and familiar of all editing patterns, consisting of parallel editing (crosscutting) between shots of different characters, usually in a conversation or confrontation. When used in continuity editing, the shots are typically framed over each character's shoulder to preserve screen direction.
A cut that preserves continuity between two shots. Several kinds of match cuts exist, including the eye-line match cut, the graphic match cut, and the match-on-action cut.
'A' matches 'B' in action, subject, graphic content, or eye contact
'A' looks and 'B' looks back
A match cut that joins shot A (often a point-of-view shot of a character looking offscreen in one direction) and shot B (the person or object that the character is seeing). Compare graphic match cut and match on-action cut
Makes us aware we are seeing the perspective of a particular group
The joining together of a point-of-view shot with a match cut (specifically, a match-on-action cut) to show, in the first shot, a character looking and, in the second, what that character is looking at.
Cutting together 2+ lines of action happening at the same time in different places also known as crosscutting (chase/rescue scenes)
Editing of 2+ actions that take place at different locations and/or different times, but give the impression of one scene
Fade (in or out)
Allows a scene to open or close slowly, suggesting a break in time, place, or action
shot fades in from a black field on black-and white film or from a color field on color film, or fades out to a black field (or a color field).
Shot B gradually appears over shot A and begins to replace it midway through the process. indicate passing of time.
* Jump cut
* Fade (in or out)
* Split screen
* What is heard in a movie
* The audio component to filmmaking
* Operates on both a physical and psychological level
Dialogue is the speech of the characters
* Dialogue is a function of plot
* Product of acting
Narration is commentary spoken by either an onscreen or off-screen voice
* Omniscient - not from a character in the movie (3rd person)
* 1st person - from a character within the movie
* Ambient sound
* Sound effects [Foley sounds]
Emanates from the ambiance of the setting or environment being fimed
Include all sounds artificially created for the soundtrack that have a function in telling the story
* Foley sounds
Unique sounds created from a variety of props and equipment to simulate everyday sounds
*Absence of sounds we expect in a movie
*Functions as a sound when the filmmaker deliberately suppressed the vocal, environmental, or musical sounds
*Interplay between silence and sound produces a rhythm for the film
Sound Production Phases
Creating the sound for a film based on the following assumptions:
* Sound should be integral to all 3 phases of film production (pre-production, production, post-production)
* Sound is potentially as expressive as its images
* Image and sound can create different worlds
* Image and sound are co-experssible
The process of capturing sound for movies with a microphone
Responsible for the overall process of editing and for the sound crew; also works with the musical composer(s)
The process of recording and replacing voices on a soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting. This re-recording process is done in post-production and post-release.
ADR (Automatic Dialogue Replacement)
A computer process for synching dialogue rerecorded in post-production to the moving lips of actors on screen
Combining different sound tracks onto one composite sound track synchronous with the picture
A single element (vocals, effects, music) on an individual track that can be combined in a multi-track sound design
Describing Film Sound
Perceptual characteristics of sound:
Source - where it comes from
Type - vocal or musical
Sources of Film Sound
* Source - the location from which a sound originates
* Diegetic vs nondiegetic
* Onscreen vs off-screen
* Internal vs external
Originates from a source within a film's world
Comes from a source outside a film's world
Internal vs External
Internal sound occurs whenever we hear what we assume are the thoughts of a character within a scene
External sound comes from within the diegesis (the world of the story) and we assume that it is heard by the characters in that world
Functions of Film Sound
* Tell the narrative
* Audience awareness - spatial and temporal dimension
* Expression of point of view
* Raise expectations
* Create a rhythm
* Develop character
* Dialogue, sound effects, and music all develop character
* Musical themes can associate with character's thoughts and setting
* Musical themes can be used to identify characters
A movie that tells the story (in some part) through song & dance
* Score or source
* Sets mood or manipulates emotions
* The juxtaposition of music and image can create new meaning
* Musical themes are frequently associated with individual characters
A recurrent musical idea (a melody, chord sequence, rhythm) associated with a particular character, idea, or space
The use of a variety of shots of a scene—taken from multiple angles, distances, and perspectives—to provide the director and editor a greater choice of editing options during postproduction. do not usually use multiple cameras. lighting limits angles used. MORE COVERAGE- more time & money, but more editing options and angles to choose from.can choose best performances.
used only for big budget or micro budget movies. NOT USUALLY USED bc expensive and splits creative attention.
lighting setup one
2 shots taken btwn character A & B, closeup and medium closeup on A. 1 over the shoulder (OTS) shot behind B over to A. 1 master shot (can refer back to at any time). AFTER ALL, switch, change lighting setup, and repeat for B. 7 shots overall.
one scene shot time frame
a 3 minute scene could take 2.5 hours to film, realistically. (lighting setups, different shots, 4 takes each, hair makeup actor breaks).
editing and salience
people hold onto important info and disregard insignificant info. therefore, we construct simple narratives automatically to get rid of useless info. EDITING TAKES ADVANTAGE OF THIS
hollywood convention montage
radically condenses time