340 terms

Rolfs AP World History Period 1-3 Vocabulary Review

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Agriculture
The practice of raising crops or livestock on a continual and controlled basis.
Artisan
A skilled craftsperson.
Domestication
The taming of animals and plants for human use, such as for labor or food.
Eurasia
The large landmass that includes both Europe and Asia.
Animism
The belief that animals, Rivers, and other elements of nature embody spirits.
Hunter-foragers
People who survived by hunting animals and foraging for seeds, nuts, fruits, and edible roots.
Irrigation
A way of supplying water to an area of land, the people would use water from the rivers to irrigate their crops.
Metallurgy
The science of the study of metals.
Migration
A movement from one country or region to another.
Monotheism
The belief in one God.
Paleolithic Period
Old Stone Age, where humanos used stone tools and weapons.
Specialization of labor
The division of labor that aids the development of skills in a particular type of work.
Surplus
Having more resources than needed for themselves.
Textile
Items made of cloth, would be weaved by women and then decorated, usually all at home.
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Overgrazing
The continual eating of grasses or their roots, without allowing them to regrow.
Overfarming
Land loosing its fertility unless it is left fallow or it was fertilized usually by spreading of animal manure.
Artifacts
Objects made and used by early humans, usually dug up by archaeologists.
Neolithic Revolution
The switch from nomadic lifestyles to a settled agricultural lifestyle.
Bronze Age
The period in ancient human culture when people began to make and use bronze.
Civilization
The stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced.
Jericho
One of the oldest first human cities that was built on the West Bank of the Jordan river.
Catal Huyuk
Ancient city in present dat Turkey that was founded in 7500 B.C.E. along a river that has since dried up.
Nomadic Pastoralism
People moving herds of animals from pasture to pasture.
Kinship Group
Several related families that moved together in search of food.
Clan
Group of families with a common ancestor.
Tribe
A group of people who share a common ancestry, language, name, and way of living.
Patriarchal
Relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority.
Merchants
People who buy and sell goods also known as traders.
Social Stratification
The division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy. Some people accumulated wealth in the form of jewelry and others coveted items by building larger and better decorated houses.
Priests and
Priestesses
People who performed religious ceremonies.
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Flow south from modern day Turkey through what is now Iraq to empty into the Persian Gulf.
Mesopotamia
Land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers where many ancient civilizations arose from.
Fertile Crescent
An arc of fertile land from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf .
Sumerians
Group of nomadic pastoralists that migrated into Mesopotamia and created a civilization of Sumer that provided the core and the foundation of several other civilizations.
Ziggurats
Temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped.
Desertification
The spread of desert like conditions.
Indus River Valley
Developed near water and became the core and foundation of later civilizations in the region.
Environmental Degradation
Caused the gradual decline and eventual disappearance of the Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations by soil eroding.
Deforestation
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
Loess
A wind-formed deposit made of fine particles of clay and silt.
Mesoamerica
An area of ancient civilization in what is now Central America.
Glyphs
The first writing system in the Americas that used pictures and symbols of real ojects.
Barter
Trading system in which people exchange goods directly without using money.
Polytheistic
Belief in many gods.
Ziggurats
Temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped.
Astronomy
The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space.
Astrology
Theory of the influence of planets and stars on human events.
Abraham
Founder of Judaism.
Moses
Led the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt; received the 10 commandments.
Ten Commandments
Laws given by God to Moses that tell Jews how to behave in their daily lives.
Jewish Diaspora
The scattering of the Jewish people outside their homeland beginning about 586 B.C.E.
The Huang He and The Chiang Jiang
Where Chinas first civilizations developed.
Mummification
Involved removing the body's internal organs, drying the body with salts, and packing its insides and wrapping it with chemically treated cloth.
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing that involved using pictures to represent words.
Papyrus
A type of plant that grew along the Nile River, used its fibers to create a type of paper.
Vedas
A collection of Aryan religious hymns, poems, and songs.
Vedic Age
Aryans growing awareness of Dravidian beliefs.
Brahma
Overarching, universal soul that connects all creatures on Earth.
Dharma
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties.
Karma
The effects that good or bad actions have on a person's soul.
Moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Ancestor Veneration
The believe of making offerings to their ancestors in hope to win their favor.
Golden Age
A period in which a society or culture is at its peak.
Mandate of Heaven
A just rulers power was bestowed by the gods.
Upanishads
A foundational text for the set of religious beliefs that later became known as Hinduism.
Pictographs
A graphic symbol that represents an idea, concept, or object, rather than representing a single sound, as letter systems do.
Shamans
People who believed to have special abilities to cure the sick and influence the future.
Core and Foundational civilizations
Civilizations that developed ways of life, such as language, religious beliefs, and economic practices, that would heavily influence successor civilizations in their regions.
City-State
Typically covered several hundred square miles and were independent each with its own government.
Kings
Sumerian military leaders became more important than priests and ruled over a territory known as a kingdom.
Cuneiform
Sumerians created it to keep records which consisted of marks carved onto wet clay tablets.
Scribes
Individuals who were charged first with record-keeping and later with the writing of history and myths.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
An epic poem from Mesopotamia, is among the earliest surviving works of literature.
Empire
Large territory that included diverse cultural groups.
Babylonians
Persians who took control of Mesopotamia and built a new capital city called Babylon.
Hammurabi
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC), and created a set of laws called the Code of Hammurabi.
Code of Hammurabi
Law code introduced when Hammurabi of Babylon took over Sumer in 1760 BC, that dealt with topics such as property rights, wages, contracts, marriage, and various crimes.
Phoenicians
Most powerful traders along the Mediterranean, that occupied parts of present day Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan around 3000 B.C.E.
Carthage
A Phoenician colony on the coast of North Africa, that became a significant outpost in the region.
Alphabetic script
A system of symbols (letters) that represent the sounds of speech, as an alternative to cuneiform around 1000 B.C.E.
Sahara and Kalahari Deserts
Two desert zones one in Northern Africa and the other in Southern Africa.
Nile River
The river in which early kingdoms in Egypt were centered around.
Old Kingdom
A period in Egyptian history that lasted from about 2700 BC to 2200 BC.
Middle Kingdom
A period of order and stability that lasted until about 1750 BC.
New Kingdom
The period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory.
Pharaoh
A king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader.
Theocracy
Rulers holding both religious and political power.
A government controlled by religious leaders
Hyksos
A group of nomadic invaders from southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C.
Akhenaton
The pharaoh that tried to change Egypts religion and called for the worship of a sun god called Aten.
Ramses the Great
Took the throne around 1290 B.C.E. who expanded the empire into Southwest Asia and built more temples and erected more statues than any other pharaoh.
Hittites
Had military advantage over the Egyptians because they were beginning to use iron tools and weapons.
Dravidians
Indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent.
Xia Dynasty
Lasted for about 400 years, little is known because early Chinese had no writing system.
Shang Dynasty
Ruled for 600 years, conquered neighboring peoples and established an empire, wielded tremendous economic and religious power.
Zhou Dynasty
The longest lasting Chinese dynasty, during which the use of iron was introduced.
Feudalism
The network of regional rulers with relationships based on mutual defense agreements.
Maize
One of the first important plants to be grown by the indigenous Americans.
Chavin Civilization
Existed from around 1000 to 200 B.C.E, and centered at Chavin de Huantar.
Olmec
The foundation or core of Mesoamerica advanced civilizations.
Aboriginals
People in Australia who remained hunter-foragers.
Easter Island
Divided into clans, with a chief for each clan and one chief over all clans.
Ahura Mazda
In Zoroastrianism, the good god who rules the world.
Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.E.), conqueror of the Persian Empire and part of northwest India.
Ancestral Pueblo
Formerly known as the Anasazi, this people established a mixed agricultural and gathering/hunting society in the southwestern part of North America.
Angra Mainyu
In Zoroastrianism, the evil god, engaged in a cosmic struggle with Ahura Mazda.
Aristotle
A Greek polymath philosopher (384-322 B.C.E.); student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
Aryans
Indo-European pastoralists who moved into India about the time of the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization; their role in causing this collapse is still debated by historians.
Ashoka
The most famous ruler of the Mauryan Empire (r. 268-232 B.C.E.), who converted to Buddhism and tried to rule peacefully and with tolerance.
Athenian democracy
A radical form of direct democracy in which much of the free male population of Athens had the franchise and officeholders were chosen by lot.
Atman
The human soul, which in classic Hindu belief seeks union with Brahman.
Axum
Classical-era kingdom of East Africa, in present-day Eritrea and northern Ethiopia; flourished from 100 to 600 CE
from 100 to 600 C.E.
...
Bantu expansion
Gradual migration of peoples from their homeland in what is now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of eastern and southern Africa, a process that began around 3000 B.C.E. and continued for several millennia. The agricultural techniques and ironworking
Ban Zhao
A major female Confucian author of Han dynasty China (45-116 C.E.) whose works give insight into the implication of Confucian thinking for women.
Battle of Marathon
Athenian victory over a Persian invasion in 490 B.C.E.
Bhagavad Gita
A great Hindu epic text, part of the much larger Mahabharata, which affirms the performance of caste duties as a path to religious liberation.
bhakti movement
An immensely popular development in Hinduism, advocating intense devotion toward a particular deity.
Brahman
The "World Soul" or final reality in upanishadic Hindu belief.
Brahmins
The priestly caste of India.
Buddhism
The cultural/religious tradition first enunciated by Siddhartha Gautama
Caesar Augustus
The great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar who emerged as sole ruler of the Roman state at the end of an extended period of civil war (r. 31 B.C.E.-14 C.E.).
Cahokia
The dominant center of an important Mississippi valley mound-building culture, located near present-day St. Louis, Missouri; flourished from about 900 to 1250 C.E.
caste as varna and jati
The system of social organization in India that has evolved over millennia; it is based on an original division of the populace into four inherited classes, with the addition of thousands of social distinctions based on occupation, which became the main cell of social life in India.
Chavin
Andean town that was the center of a large Peruvian religious movement from around 900 to 200 B.C.E.
Confucianism
The Chinese philosophy first enunciated by Confucius, advocating the moral example of superiors as the key element of social order.
Confucius
The founder of Confucianism (551-479 B.C.E.); an aristocrat of northern China who proved to be the greatest influence on Chinese culture in its history.
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 306-337 C.E.) whose conversion to Christianity paved the way for the triumph of Christianity in Europe.
Coptic Christianity
The Egyptian variety of Christianity, distinctive in its belief that Christ has only a single, divine nature.
Cyrus (the Great)
Founder of the Persian Empire (r. 557-530 B.C.E.); a ruler noted for his conquests, religious tolerance, and political moderation.
Daodejing
The central text of Daoism; translated as The Way and Its Power.
Daoism
A Chinese philosophy/popular religion that advocates simplicity and understanding of the world of nature, founded by the legendary figure Laozi.
Darius I
Great king of Persia (r. 522-486 B.C.E.) following the upheavals after Cyrus's death; completed the establishment of the Persian Empire.
dharma
In Indian belief, performance of the duties appropriate to an individual's caste; good performance will lead to rebirth in a higher caste.
Empress Wu
The only female "emperor" in Chinese history (r. 690-705 C.E--Tang Dynasty.); patronized scholarship, worked to elevate the position of women, and provoked a backlash of Confucian misogynist invective.
Filial piety
The honoring of one's ancestors and parents, a key element of Confucianism.
Greco-Persian Wars
Two major Persian invasions of Greece, in 490 B.C.E. and 480 B.C.E., in which the Persians were defeated on both land and sea.
Greek rationalism
A secularizing system of scientific and philosophic thought that developed in classical Greece in the period 600 to 300 B.C.E.; it emphasized the power of education and human reason to understand the world in nonreligious terms.
Gupta Empire
An empire of India (320-550 C.E.).
Han dynasty
Dynasty that ruled China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E., creating a durable state based on Shihuangdi's state-building achievement.
Hellenistic era
The period from 323 to 30 B.C.E. in which Greek culture spread widely in Eurasia in the kingdoms ruled by Alexander's political successors.
helots
The dependent, semi-enslaved class of ancient Sparta whose social discontent prompted the militarization of Spartan society.
Herodotus
Greek historian known as the "father of history" (ca. 484-ca. 425 B.C.E.). His Histories enunciated the Greek view of a fundamental divide between East and West, culminating in the Greco-Persian Wars of 490-480 B.C.E.
Hinduism
A word derived from outsiders to describe the vast diversity of indigenous Indian religious traditions.
Hippocrates
A very influential Greek medical theorist (ca. 460-ca. 370 B.C.E.); regarded as the father of medicine.
Hopewell Culture
Named from its most important site (in present-day Ohio), this is the most elaborate and widespread of the North American mound building cultures; flourished from 200 B.C.E. to 400 C.E.
hoplite
A heavily armed Greek infantryman. Over time, the ability to afford a hoplite panoply and to
fight for the city came to define Greek citizenship.
...
Ionia
The territory of Greek settlements on the coast of Anatolia; the main bone of contention between the Greeks and the Persian Empire.
Isiah
One of the most important prophets of Judaism, whose teachings show the transformation
of the religion in favor of compassion and social justice (eighth century B.C.E.).
...
Jenne-jeno
Largest and most fully studied of the cities of the Niger Valley civilization
Jesus of Nazareth
The prophet/god of Christianity(ca. 4 B.C.E.-ca. 30 C.E.).
Karma
In Hinduism, the determining factor of the level at which the individual is reincarnated, based
on purity of action and fulfillment of duty in the prior existence.
...
karma
In Indian belief, the force generated by one's behavior in a previous life that decides the level at which an individual will be reborn.
Ksatriya
The Indian social class of warriors and rulers.
Laozi
A legendary Chinese philosopher of the sixth century B.C.E.; regarded as the founder of Daoism.
latifundia
Huge estates operated by slave labor that flourished in parts of the Roman Empire
Legalism
A Chinese philosophy distinguished by an adherence to clear laws with vigorous punishments.
Mahayana
"Great Vehicle," the popular development of Buddhism in the early centuries of the Common Era, which gives a much greater role to supernatural beings and proved to be more popular than original (Theravada) Buddhism.
Mandate of Heaven
The ideological underpinning of Chinese emperors, this was the belief that a ruler held authority by command of divine force as long as he ruled morally and benevolently.
Mauryan Empire
A major empire (322-185 B.C.E.) that encompassed most of India.
Maya
The major classical civilization of Mesoamerica; flourished from 250 to 900 C.E.
Moche
An important regional civilization of Peru, governed by warrior-priests; flourished from around 100 to 800 C.E.
Moksha
In Hindu belief, liberation from separate existence and union with Brahman.
Mound Builders
Members of any of a number of cultures that developed east of the Mississippi River in what is now the United States and that are distinguished by their large earthen mounds, built during the period 2000 B.C.E.-1250 C.E.
Nazca
A civilization of southern coastal Peru, the Nazca became famous for their underground irrigation channels and their gigantic and mysterious lines in the desert in the form of monkeys, birds, spiders, and other designs.
Niger Valley Civilization
Distinctive city-based civilization that flourished from about 300 B.C.E. to about 900 C.E. in the floodplain of the middle Niger and that included major cities like Jenne-jeno; the Niger Valley civilization is particularly noteworthy for its apparent lack of centralized state structures, having been organized instead in clusters of economically specialized settlements.
Nirvana
The end goal of Buddhism, in which individual identity is "extinguished" into a state of serenity and great compassion.
Olympic Games
Greek religious festival and athletic competition in honor of Zeus; founded in 776B.C.E. and celebrated every four years.
Patricians
Wealthy, privileged Romans who dominated early Roman society.
Pax Romana
The "Roman peace," a term typically used to denote the stability and prosperity of the early Roman Empire, especially in the first and second centuries C.E.
Peloponnesian War
Great war between Athens (and allies) and Sparta (and allies), lasting from 431 to 404 B.C.E. The conflict ended in the defeat of Athens and the closing of Athens's Golden Age.
Pericles
A prominent and influential statesman of ancient Athens (ca. 495-429 B.C.E.); presided over Athens's Golden Age.
Persepolis
The capital and greatest palace-city of the Persian Empire, destroyed by Alexander the Great.
Persian Empire
A major empire that expanded from the Iranian plateau to incorporate the Middle East from Egypt to India; flourished from around 550 to 330 B.C.E.
Plato
A disciple of Socrates whose Dialogues convey the teachings of his master while going beyond them to express Plato's own philosophy; lived from 429 to 348 B.C.E.
Plebians
Poorer, less privileged Romans who gradually won a role in Roman politics.
Pueblo
"Great house" of the Ancestral Pueblo people; a large, apartment building-like structure that could house hundreds of people.
Punic Wars
Three major wars between Rome and Carthage in North Africa, fought between 264 and 146 B.C.E., that culminated in Roman victory and control of the western Mediterranean.
Pythagoras
A major Greek philosopher (ca. 560-ca. 480 B.C.E.) who believed that an unchanging mathematical order underlies the apparent chaos of the world.
Qin Dynasty
A short-lived (221-206 B.C.E.) but highly influential Chinese dynasty that succeeded in reuniting China at the end of the Warring States period.
Qin Shihuangdi
Literally "first emperor" (r. 221-210 B.C.E.) forcibly
reunited China and established a strong and repressive state.
...
"ritual purity" in Indian social practice
In India, the idea that members of higher castes must adhere to strict regulations limiting or forbidding their contact with objects and members of lower castes to preserve their own caste standing and their relationship with the gods.
Saint Paul
The first great popularizer of Christianity (10-65 C.E.).
scholar-gentry class
A term used to describe members of China's landowning families, reflecting their wealth from the land and the privilege that they derived as government officials.
Semi-sedentary
Term frequently used to describe the peoples of the eastern woodlands of the United States, Central America, the Amazon basin, and the Caribbean islands who combined partial reliance on agriculture with gathering and hunting.
Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha)
The Indian prince turned ascetic (ca. 566-ca. 486 B.C.E.) who founded Buddhism.
Socrates
The first great Greek philosopher to turn rationalism toward questions of human existence (469-399 B.C.E.).
Solon
Athenian statesman and lawmaker (fl. 594-560 B.C.E.) whose reforms led the Athenians toward democracy.
Sudra
The lowest Indian social class of varna; regarded as servants of their social betters; eventually included peasant farmers
Teotihuacán
The largest city of pre-Columbian America, with a population between 100,000 and 200,000; seemingly built to a plan in the Valley of Mexico, flourished between 300 and 600 C.E., during which time it governed or influenced much of the surrounding region. The name is an Aztec term meaning "city of the gods."
Theodosius
Roman emperor (r. 379-395 C.E.) who made Christianity the official religion of the
Roman state, banning all polytheistic rituals.
...
Theravada
"The Teaching of the Elders," the early form of Buddhism according to which the Buddha as a wise teacher but not divine and which emphasizes practices rather than beliefs.
the "three obediences"
In Chinese Confucian thought, the notion that a woman is permanently subordinate to male control: first that of her father, then of her husband, and finally of her son.
Tikal
Major Maya city, with a population of perhaps 50,000 people.
Untouchables
An Indian social class that emerged below the Sudras and whose members performed the most unclean and polluting work.
Upanishads
Indian mystical and philosophical works, written between 800 and 400 B.C.E.
Vaisya
The Indian social class that was originally defined as farmers but eventually comprised merchants.
Vedas
The earliest religious texts of India, a collection of ancient poems, hymns, and rituals that were transmitted orally before being written down ca. 600 B.C.E.
Wang Mang
A Han court official who usurped the throne and ruled from 8 C.E. to 23 C.E.; noted for his reform movement that included the breakup of large estates.
Warring States Period
Period in China from 403 to 221 B.C.E. that was typified by disorder and political chaos.
Wudi
Han emperor (r. 141-86 B.C.E.) who began the Chinese civil service system by establishing an academy to train imperial bureaucrats.
Xiongnu
Nomadic peoples to the north of the Great Wall of China who were a frequent threat to the stability of the Chinese state.
Yahweh
The monotheistic religion developed by the Hebrews, emphasizing a sole personal god (Yahweh) with concerns for social justice.
Yellow Turban Rebellion
A major Chinese peasant revolt that began in 184 C.E. and helped cause the fall of the Han dynasty.
Yin and Yang
Expression of the Chinese belief in the unity of opposites.
Zarathustra
A Persian prophet, traditionally dated to the sixth or seventh century B.C.E. (but perhaps much older), who founded Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism
Persian monotheistic religion founded by the prophet Zarathustra.
Roman Empire
stretched from modern day Britain to modern day Iran.
Acupuncture
Chinese medical practice of inserting needles into certain areas of the body influenced by Daoism
filial piety
The honoring of one's ancestors and parents, a key element of Confucianism.
plague
a disease that spreads quickly and kills many people
Han
Chinese dynasty that ruled from 202 B.C.E.-220 C.E, embraced Confucianism.
Cyrus the Great
First emperor of Persia--was good to conquered people.
Rock Pillar Edicts
Moral and legal codes established by Ashoka, influenced by Buddhism
Julius Caesar
ancient roman general whose murder led to the end of the roman republic
Roman roads
were built throughout the empire for trade and transportation; over 50,000 miles
Silk Roads
Which trade route is indicated by the map?
monsoons
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
Babylonian Captivity
50-year period in which the Israelites were exiled from their homeland and eventually freed by the Persians
sanskrit
Primary sacred language of hinduism
reincarnation
Hindu and Buddhist belief that souls are reborn into new bodies over and over.
Four Noble Truths
as taught by the Buddha, the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
sutras
Buddhists sacred writings.
Five Basic Relationships
ruler/subject; father/son; husband/wife; older brother/younger brother; friend/friend
Daoist architecture
Chinese building style influenced by one of the main philosophies that emerged during the period of Warring States
ancestor veneration
They don't worship ancestors, but they pray to them out of respect.
Athens
A Greek city-state and the birthplace of democracy.
Sparta
a greek city-state known for its strength and trained warriors
Peloponnesian War
30 year conflict between Sparta and Athens that ended with a Spartan victory but left Greece weak
Hellenism
Cultural syncretism that blended five of the greatest classical civilizations after Alexander the Great
bureaucracies
ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedures developed in earnest by the classical empires
Great Wall of China
First stages built by Qin Shihuangdi
Hadrian's Wall
Northern border of the Roman Empire in Britannia
Pataliputra
The capital of both Mauryan and Gupta empires
Alexandria
An ancient city in Egypt built by Alexander the Great; center of Hellenism
Constantinople
The capital of the eastern Roman Empire and later of the Byzantine Empire
corvee
Labor tax; peasants had to work for free for part of the year
slavery
A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.
sati
the Hindu ritual requiring a wife to throw herself on her deceased husband's funeral pyre
Huns
A tribe originating north of China; one of the last barbarian groups to invade Western Europe; helped bring an end to the Han, Gupta, and Romans
Conrad-Demorest Model
Can be used to describe the rise and fall of every empire in history
camel
increased trade between Africa and Asia; important domesticated pack animal of the classical age
dhow
Name of this type of ship
lateen sail
triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind
Silk Roads
Eurasian trading network that connected Rome, China, and India. Transported mostly luxury goods. Transport was done in "chunks" (no one traversed the entire route). Spread ideas (especially Buddhism) and disease (the plague). Transport on this route declined substantially because of the spread of disease.
Black Death
Another name for the plague. Decimated much of Eurasia and North Africa, spreading from east to west, in the fourteenth century. Spread by fleas on rats. Killed from 1/3 to 2/3 of people in Europe, helped to topple Yuan dynasty in China.
Indian Ocean trading network
Stretched from Southern China to Eastern Africa, carried some luxury goods (gold, ivory, porcelain, spices, etc.) and, unlike the Silk Road, bulk and staple goods (textiles, pepper, rice, timber, sugar, wheat) because of the ability of ships to carry more cargo. Depended on monsoons. Trade occurred between cities rather than nations.
Srivijaya
Malay kingdom, dominated the critical choke point of Indian Ocean trade (the Malay peninsula/Coast of Sumatra) from 670 to 1025. State had a plentiful supply of gold, access to spices, and levied taxes on trade; from this drew supporters, funded bureaucracy, and created a navy. Imported Indian political ideas and Buddhism
Borobudur
Mountain shaped structure of ten levels, depicting the Buddhist journey from ignorance to enlightenment, located in the Sailendra Kingdom (Java). Largest Buddhist monument in the world. Represents the blending of Javanese culture with Buddhism, and the penetration of Indian culture in the region.
Swahili civilization
East African civilization, in 8th century took the shape of a set of commercial city states stretching along the East African coast. Growth stimulated by Indian ocean trade, extremely urban, language influenced by Arabic traders, became Islamic.
Great Zimbabwe
Located in African interior, grew up on gold trade (esp. with Somalia), and reached its peak between 1250 and 1350. Built imposing walls.
Sand Roads
Took of with the introduction of the camel in the 1st century, connected North and West Africa, salt exchanged for gold and slaves, spread Islam, by 4th century regular trans-Saharan trade established. Gold sought most highly.
Ghana, Mali, Songhay
Construction stimulated by Sand Road trade. All monarchies with court lives and varying degrees of bureaucracy and military strength, and drew wealth from taxing trans-Saharan trade
trans-Saharan slave trade
Mostly non-Islamic peoples without a state, held a variety of jobs (normally servants to Islamic people's in North Africa). Between 1100 and 1400 thousands of slaves were transported across the Sahara each year.
American web
Less connected than Eurasian societies (absence of domesticated animals/North-South Direction). Loose contact from Great Lakes to Mississippi to Andes, spread maize and some culture. Most active between Mesoamerica and the Andes; civilizations in that region had trading networks. Inca state built roads.
Sui Dynasty
Ruled 589-618. Reunite China after the fall on the Han in 220.
Tang Dynasty
8th Century Dynasty. Helped begin the Golden Age of China, along with the Song, with the reintroduction if the examination system, and the establishment of schools.
Hangzhou
Capital of Song Dynasty China, home to more than a million people, abounded in specialized markets, visited by Marco Polo.
Foot binding
Emerged during the Song Dynasty (which created a reemergence of patriarchy and restrictions on women). Forced women to conform to a certain aesthetic ideal and restricted their movement.
Tribute system
China sees itself as "Middle Kingdom", extracts tribute from neighbors and nomads in exchange for not making war and acknowledging Chinese superiority. Foreigners submits o this in exchange for trade rights. Chinese sometimes had to pay tribute to nomads.
Xiongnu
"Barbarian" Empire that took over pieces of China and demanded tribute. Nomads.
Silla Dynasty (Korea)
Ruled 688-900. Allied with Tang Dynasty to create unity between Korea and China.
bushido
Japanese, way of the warrior (samurai).
Chinese Buddhism
Came from India via the Silk Road, blended with Chinese culture (esp. Confucianism), with texts translated to reflect more Chinese values (dharma becomes dao). After the collapse of the Han dynasty Buddhist monasteries provided some social services, revived modest state support. After 800, xenophobia (b/c of foreign born revolution) against Buddhism increased; sharply criticized by upper class, Chinese state tried to destroy it (still remainder popular).
Emperor Wendi
Sui emperor (r. 581-604), provided state support for Buddhism, built temples, and used Buddhism to justify military campaigns.
Byzantine Empire
Started 330, continuation of Roman Empire. Included Egypt, Greece, Syria, and Anatolia; wealthier, more urbanized, and more cosmopolitan than the Western Empire. Kept the roads, tax system, imperial court, laws, and Christian court of the Roman Empire. Considered themselves Romans.
Constantinople
Capital of Byzantine Empire, established by Emperor Constantinople in 330 on the site of the former Greek city of Byzantium.
Justinian
Emperor of Byzantine Empire (r. 527-565). Attempted to reconquer the Mediterranean basin.
caesaropapism
The close relationship between Church and State in Byzantium. The Emperor took on the role of "Caesar", head of state, and pope (he appointed the leader of the Orthodox Church).
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Huge impact on Byzantine life. Created by the Schism of 1054, didn't want to recognize the Pope's authority, its priests can marry, and wanted to prohibit the use of icons, as well as other theological disputes.
icons
Popular paintings of saints and biblical scenes, usually on small wooden panels.
Kievan Rus
Modest state, named after its largest city, Kiev, emerged in the 9th century b/c of trade. Led by princes, stratified society. Religiously diverse, in 10th century, Prince Vladimir of Kiev allied the state with Eastern Orthodox Christianity (so as to unite his people).
Prince Vladimir of Kiev
Prince of Kievan Rus, converted his people o Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Charlemagne
Charles the Great (r. 768-814). Extended Frankish control through Spain and Italy. Symbolic of the post imperial age, he was barely literate, speaking some Latin and a little Greek, had facility with Theologians, and was the strongest ruler of his lifetime. Aechen was his capital, delegated power to Counts. On Chrustmas Day, 800 he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo (this anger Byzantine Empire).
Holy Roman Empire
Encompassed much of Germany, made up of small principalities.
1453
Fall of Byzantine Empire
Roman Catholic Church
Latin half of the Christian Church, headed by the Pope. Record keeper of Europe.
Western Christendom
For much of the period occupied the fringes of world history, only after 1500 did it fr come geographically central to world trade. Organized into competing states, feudalism and manorialism emerge. Roman Catholic Church fills power vacuum left by Roman Empire.
Crusades
Started when Emperor Alexios asked Pope Urban II for help in recapturing the holy land from Muslims, dominated by French and Norman nobles, alternative to poor life in Europe. 1st a Crusade starts 1095, 4th Crusade (1202-4) is the most famous. 9 crusades total, briefly recapture holy land (1099), then it us taken again by Muslims (1187).
European cities
Emerge after 1000. City states like Venice, Florence, Milan, and the Papal States. Were autonomous and had different kinds of government.
system of competing states
Never achieved Unity as in Roman Empire. Individual states like France, England, Sweden, etc competed for power and land.
Aristotle and Classical Greek learning
Universities established, literate churchmen debate these ideas and apply them first to theology, then to other disciplines. Sought texts from Byzantium and Arab world. Aristo ties writings become basis for university education.
Quran
The sacred scripture of Islam, given to Mohamed as a series off revelations from the angel Gabriel that began in 610 and continued for the next 22 years. Radically monotheistic, challenged the social inequalities and tribalism of Arab society.
umma
The worldwide Muslim community, the community of all believers.
Pillars of Islam
The five requirements for believers:
1. No God but Allah, Muhammad is his messenger
2. Prayer (Pray five times a day facing Mecca
3. Almsgiving (Believers must support the poor)
4. Month of Fasting During Ramadan (No food, drink, or sex from dawn till sundown
5. Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca)
*6. Jihad (Holy War against Infidels)
Hijra
Mohamed's emigration from Mecca to Medina in 622. Marked the beginning of a new Islamic calendar.
Jizya
"People of the Book" (Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians) had to pay the Jizya tax in order to freely practice their religion.
Ulama
Religious scholars, Sunni Muslims believe that religious authority emerges from them.
Umayyad Caliphate
(r. 661-750) Arab rule expanded, caliph became hereditary position, and the capital moved to Damascus. Disliked by Shia and non-Muslims, lived very luxuriously. Overthrown by Abbasids in 750.
Abbasid caliphate
Capital in Baghdad, oversaw flourishing civilization in which non-Arabs gained new prominence. Heavy Persian influence. Began fracturing into sultanate sin the 9th century, officially ended in 1258 with Mongol conquest.
Sikhism
A blend of Islam (esp. Monotheism) and Hinduism (karma, rebirth), founded by Guru Nanak (1469-1539).
Anatolia
(Turkey). At first, ruled by Byzantines and largely Greek speaking Christians. Invaded by Turkic peoples, by 1500 90% Muslim and largely Turkic speaking. Unlike India, huge cultural change. Heartland of Ottoman Empire.
Ibn Battuta
14th Century Arab Moroccan traveler, disapproved of Anatolia's freer Islamic women, same in West Afruca.
Timbuktu
By 16th century, became a center of Islamic learning, with mosques, schools, higher education, and libraries.
Sharia
Islamic law, which is considered the one law for both secular and religious matters. Regulated every aspect of life. Developed primarily in 8th and 9th century by Ulama. Different schools of Sharia thought emerged.
Pastoralism
Lived in areas where farming was difficult, instead focused their economies on the raising of livestock. Emerged only in the Afro-Eurasian world. Less productive economies, smaller populations, kin based group organization, better status for women, and more egalitarian than agricultural societies. Mobile. Connected to, and dependent on, agricultural neighbors. Hard to organize into states.
Turks
From Mongolia and Northern Siberia, migrated westward and created a series of empires between 552-965. Alliance of tribes headed by single leader. Allied, traded with, exacted tribute, and raided China, Persia, and Byzantium. Converted to Islam, moved to Middle East, first skates to Abbasid, later took military power themselves. Created Seljuk Turk empire in 11th and 12th centuries, became sultans. Brought Islam and Turkic culture to Anatolia and the Ottoman Empire.
Temujin/Chinggis Khan
(1162-1227) Father murdered, family held together by mother. Built up a small band of followers, allied with powerful tribal leaders, and rose to power from complex tribal politics. In 1206 Mongol tribal assembly recognized him as supreme leader of Mongol nation. To keep tribe together decided to attack China, first assault launched 1209.
The Mongol world war
A process of military campaigns, massive killing, and empire building by Khan and his grandsons enabled the Mongol empire to encompass China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, much of the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe. Conquered people scattered.
Khubilai Khan
Khan's grandson, Mongol leader of China from 1271 to 1294, gave ancestors Chinese names, improved roads, built canals, lowered taxes, patronized the arts, limited the death penalty, supported farmers, and stopped Mongols from grazing on peasant land. Adopted some religious practices, still harsh.
Hulegu
Grandson of Khan, led the attack on Persia and Iraq (1251-1258), toppled Abbasid Caliphate, and massacred more than 200,000 people. Disaster for agricultural land and heavily taxed peasants.
Kipchak Khanate/Golden Horde
Mongol conquest of Russia, never really occupied cities, grazed herds on steppes, and collected tribute from Russian princes, whom they appointed. Russian Orthodox Church grew. No direct rule=Little assimilation. State centered in Moscow. Mongols forced out by 15th century.
Black Death/Plague
Another name for the plague. Decimated much of Eurasia and North Africa, spreading from east to west, in the fourteenth century. Spread by fleas on rats. Killed from 1/3 to 2/3 of people in Europe, helped to topple Yuan dynasty in China. Spread on Silk Road, cut off much trade. Originated in Central Asia. Reached Europe/Middle East by 1347. Better working pay for laborers, more opportunities for women. Europeans take to the sea.
Paleolithic persistence
Australia, parts of Africa, the Americas, and Sibera did not develop at the same speed as the major civilizations
Igbo
Village society of West Africa that rejected the idea of state building and would later become part of the trans-Atlantic slave trade
Iroquois
Native American tribe that resided in present day NY. They developed ideas about personal freedom and limited government.
Timur
Turkic warrior who tried to revive the Mongol empire
Fulbe
Largest pastoral/nomadic group in West Africa. Became heavily involved in Islam.
Ming dynasty China
China was taken back to the traditions of Tang/Song Dynasties. Time of recultivation, rebuilding, and reforesting occurred.
Zheng He
Muslim sailor who led expeditions for China in the Pacific
European Renaissance
A time of rebirth of culture in Europe in the fifteenth century. Helped to bridge the time between the middle ages and modern history.
Ottoman Empire
a former Turkish empire that was founded about 1300 by Osman and reached its greatest territorial extent under Suleiman in the 16th century; collapsed after World War I. Capital: Constantinople.
Seizure of Constantinople (1453)
The siege of the capital of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most heavily fortified cities in the world, took place in 1453. Sultan Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Turks, led the assault.
Safavid Empire
based in Persia (Iran), ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736. Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent, and belonged to a unique order of Sufi-infused Shi'a Islam
Songhay Empire
a member of a group of peoples living along the Niger River in the area of Timbuktu that flourished in the fifteenth century
Mughal Empire
was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia.
Aztec Empire
A member of a people of central Mexico whose civilization was at its height at the time of the Spanish conquest in the early 16th century. They practiced human sacrifice.
Inca Empire
A member of the group of Quechuan peoples of highland Peru who established an empire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest. The empire encompassed the Andes Mountains.
Pope Urban II
French pope from 1088 to 1099 whose sermons called for the First Crusade
St. Thomas Aquinas
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
St. Augustine
one of the great Fathers of the early Christian church; after a dramatic conversion to Christianity he became bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa
Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty governing China in the 13th and 14th century, Mongol Dynasty
Saladin
was a Muslim military and political leader who as sultan (or leader) led Islamic forces during the Crusades.
Excommunicate
officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church.
Hundred Year's War
A war between France and England that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth. The kings of England invaded France, trying to claim the throne.
Investiture Contest
was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies.
Mansa Musa
was an emperor (mansa) of the Mali Empire during the 14th century. He became emperor in 1307. He was the first African ruler to be widely known throughout Europe and the Middle East.
Ilkhanate
was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Grandada
last Muslim territory surrendered to Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castille
Monarchs who began the political unification of Spain by taking territory previously held under Muslim control.
Humanism
an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Khemer
an ancient kingdom in Southeast Asia that reached the peak of its power in the 11th century, when it ruled the entire Mekong River valley from the capital at Angkor. It was destroyed by Thai conquests in the 12th and 14th centuries.
Vikings
any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of northwestern Europe in the 8th-11th centuries.
Magna Carta
is a charter agreed to by King John of England that gave more rights to the Englishmen, such as Trial by Jury.

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