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147 terms

MS system diseases and disorders ch. 31,32

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joint
articulation or connection point between 2 bones
ligaments
hold bones of a joint together
cartilage
type of connective tissue that acts as a cushion for joints
bursa
fluid filled sac that provides friction free movement
fascia
connective tissue that surrounds and separates muscles
tendons
attaches muscle to bone
osteocyte
bone cells
osteoblast
immature bone cells that build bone
diaphysis
shafts of long bones and contain yellow marrow
epiphysis
the ends of long bones and have red marrow
periosteum
fibrous connective tissue that covers or lines the bones
hematopoesis
blood cell formation and takes place in the red marrow
erythropoetin
makes red blood cells
vit a, c, d, calcium, phosphorous
essential nutrients needed for bone growth
estrogen, growth hormone, testosterone
hormones that are influintial in the retention of calcium
where is red bone marrow made?
flat, spongy bone
axial, appendicular
2 divisions of the skeleton
suture
joints in the skull
functions of bone
structure, protection, blood cell formation, movement, posture, shape
functions of muscle
heat, strength, protection
changes in the ms system with age
bone loss, muscle atrophy, brittle, fracture easily, kyphosis, decrease in flexibility, weaken, bone density decreases
flexion
bending of joint
extension
straightening of a joint
abduction
away from the body
adduction
toward the body
rotation
movement around an axis of a joint
supination
rotation of the forearm with palms facing up
pronation
rotation of the forearm with palms facing down
dorsiflexion
hands and toes pointing toward the body
plantar flexion
hands and toes pointing away from the body
kyphosis
convex curvature of the thoracic spine
lordosis
concave curvature of the lumbar spine
scoliosis
lateral curvature of the spine
7 P's
pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, polar temp, paleness, puffiness, pain
parasthesia
numbness or tingling
CBC
checks for infection, inflammation, anemia
ESR
erythrocyte sed rate, increases with inflammatory conditions
uric acid
checked for gout
calcium and phosphorous
inverse relationship, secreted by the thyroid and para thyroid
calcium
increases with bone cancer, decreases with osteoporosis
ALP
(liver) increases with bone or tissue damage
CK
creatinine kinase, serum muscle enzymes, increases with muscle damage
rheumatoid factor
identifies antibodies present in conditions such as lupus, sceleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis
x-ray, CT, MRI
uses radiographic techniques to assess for fracture or bone disease
arthography
x-ray exam of the synovial joint
myelogram
use of contrast media injected into the subarachnoid space to visualize spinal cord, head down for prep and up for post op
head ache
major side effect of a myelogram
arthroscopy
internal inspection of a joint with a scope
arthrocentesis
aspiration of synovial fluid or used to instill meds
arthrogram
radiographic exam of a joint using contrast media, pt may experience a popping or clicking noise in joints for a few days
synovial fluid analysis
aspirate synovial fluid for infection, protein and glucose, joint is elevated for 12 hrs after apply ice 24-48 hrs
bone density
x-ray that estimates bone thickness (usually taken from the spine, hip, or waist)
bone scan
injection of a radio neucleide used to diagnose bone cancer and inflammatory disorders
gallium, thallium scan
scans bones but also picks up brain tissue and breast tissue
biopsy
a piece of bone or muscle is removed to diagnose malignancy, very painful, observe for swelling and bleeding after and apply ice
dexascan
same as a bone density scan
sprains
injuries to ligaments and usually affect the areas such as ankles, wrists, and knees
whip lash
a sprain of the cervical spine
strain
an injury caused by pulling or stretching a muscle beyond its capacity
contusion
soft tissue injury resulting from a blow or blunt trauma and does not usually affect ms structures but leaves a bruised area
hematoma
collection of blood in soft tissue that usually resolves in 2 weeks
avulsion
a tramatic sprain in which bones are chipped at the point of ligament attachment causing ligaments to become detached
RICE
rest, ice, compression, elevate, standard treatment for tramatic injuries
dislocation
occurs when articular surfaces of a joint are no longer in contact
subluxation
a partial dislocation caused by trauma or disease of a joint usually the spine
foot drop
caused by pressure on the perineal nerve
volkmanns contracture
claw like deformity of the hand caused by the obstruction of arterial blood flow to the forearm and hand
fracture
a break in the continuity of a bone resulting from a blow, twisting, or crushing injury
spontaneous fracture
results from injury
pathologic fracture
results from disease such as osteo, arthritis, bone cancer
open or compound fracture
results in the bone protruding through the skin
closed or simple fracture
seen when the bone doesn't protrude through the skin
greenstick
incomplete fracture, remains secure on one side
complete
fracture line extends all the way through the bone
comminuted
bone is splintered int fragments
impacted or telescope
fracture where one part is impacted into the other, you would see a shorter body part
oblique
break that runs along th slant of the length of the bone (diagonal)
spiral
break coils around the bone results from a twisting force
depressed
fragments are driven down inward (such as a head injury)
transverse
fracture across the bone
longitudinal
fracture up and down the bone along the length
12 months
time it takes to regain total strength of a fractured body part
extracapsular fracture
fracture occurs outside of the joint capsule
intracapsular fracture
occurs within the joint capsule
cast window
window cut out of a cast for an incision, needs to be replaced after care of the incision to prevent swelling
traction
application of a pulling force to reduce and realign a fracture, can be used for pain relief, maintain immobilization, and relieve muscle spasms
skin traction
apply a device to the skin that indirectly affects the bones and muscles, bucks and russel
skeletal traction
devices are applied directly to the bone using wires and pins, pin care is very important, sterile procedure always and tell pt not to touch the pins
rules for traction
ensure continuous traction, maintain counter traction positioning is very important, ropes must move freely, prescribed amount of weights on, weights hang freely
avascular necrosis
decreased blood supply that causes bone death
acute compartment syndrome
causes swelling under a cast, painful, usually needs a fasciotomy
fasciotomy
cutting into the fascia to relieve the pressure
intertrochanteric fracture of the hip
through the greater and lesser trocanter of the femur
femoral neck fracture of the hip
through the femoral wall or neck of the femur
ORIF
open reduction internal fixation, go inside to fix the fracture with nails, screws, etc
external fixation
pins inserted into the bone from the skin surface higher risk of infection
pin care
sterile, asses for drainage, examine condition of pins, clean from in to out, no ointment around the pins
swan neck
deformity in rheumatoid arthritis, joints ar hyper flexed and fixed
trophi
hard calculi that develops in the joint tissue caused from gout
rheumatoid arthritis
most serious form of arthritis, leads to crippling affects females more than males, symptoms can appear as early as 20, autoimmune disease, affects the heart and blood vessels also, ESR increases
gout
metabolic disorder that causes an accumulation of uric acid in the blood and urine caused by ineffective metabolism of purines
purines
protein seen in organ meats, yeast, alcohol, and scallops
SLE
systemic lupus erythematosis, a butterfly rash that spans over the nose and cheeks, painful, no cure, immunosuppresants to treat or steroids
AKS
alkylosis spondylitis, chronic progressive disorder affecting the sacroiliac joint, hip joint, and synovial joints, affects men more than women, no cure
lyme disease
ms problems caused by a deer tick, first sign is a bulls eye rash, 4 wks after bite you will see arthritic symptoms, antibiotics to cure
ankylosis
abnormal immobility and consolidation and obliteration of a joint
contracture
shortening of skeletal muscle tissue that is not subjected to normal stretching and contraction
crepitation
a sound like that of hair rubbed between the fingers occurs when bone fragments rub together
ossification
formation of or conversion into bone or a bony substance
arthroplasty
surgery of a joint to increase mobility or decrease pain
subluxation
a partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its place in a joint usually the spine
hemiparesis
weakness affecting only 1 side of the body
atrophy
wasting or a decrease in size from lack of use
palsy
decreased sensation and movement
thrombus
blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel
sceleroderma
autoimmune, calcinosis, raynauds, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, telangiectasis, hardening of the skin
fibromyalgia
a chronic pain syndrome, no known cause, often mistaken for pain med seekers, rule out everything else
pagets disease
a metabolic bone disease causes a bowing of the long bones and abnormal spinal curvature, bone loss
calcitonin
used to treat pagets disease
primary malignant tumors
originate in the bone
osteosarcoma
most common, usually seen in the distal femur more common in men than women
metastatic bone disease
cancer originates somewhere else and metastisizes to the bone
calcinosis
calcium deposits on the skin
raynauds
affects peripheral circulation, severe pain
esophageal dysfunction
acid reflux,
sclerodactyly
thickening and tightening of the skin of fingers and hands
telangiectasis
dilation of capillaries causing red marks on surface of skin
port
post op respiratory therapy
ischemia
decreased blood flow
stump care
assess dressing, keep a tourniquet at bed side in case of hemorrhage, prepare stump for prosthesis, elevate for 24-48 hrs to prevent edema
stump shrinker
compression stocking put on to help shape the amputated area and keep edema out
salicylates
aspirin, used to treat mild pain, anit inflammatory, anti platelet, decreases temp
non salicylates
tylenol, same as salicylates but not an anti platelet, can cause liver failure
opioid analgesics
morphine, demorall, dilaudid, blocks pain receptors for moderate or severe pain
narcan
antagonist, blocks the opiates, used for overdoses
nonopioid analgesics, NSAIDS
clebrex, ibuprofin, naprosyn, blocks an enzyme called cox-2, used for inflammation and mild pain
bisphosphonates
fosamax, boneva, actonel, promotes calcium reabsorption, decreases calcium destruction, used to reverse osteoporosis
antirheumatic drugs
plaquenil, suppresses the immune system, immunosuppressant, not given to patients with renal or liver disease
uric acid inhibitors
allopurinol, anti gout, decreases the amount of uric acid in the blood
skeletal muscle relaxants
soma, flexeril, baclofen, to relax skeletal muscles, no driving
osteomylitis
localized or generalized bone infection
muscular dystrophy
genetic disorder results in a loss of muscle tissue, weakness, and atrophy, no cure
duchennes
MD in children
myotonic
MD in adults
osteoporosis
decreased bone mass primarily seen in women 55-65 yrs, bone looks spongy
osteoarthritis
a non systemic condition it only affects the joints, causes bones to degenerate, pain is relieved by rest, NSAIDS
what increases risk of osteoporosis?
smoking, post menopause, poor calcium intake, small frame, caffiene, chronic steroid use