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articulation or connection point between 2 bones


hold bones of a joint together


type of connective tissue that acts as a cushion for joints


fluid filled sac that provides friction free movement


connective tissue that surrounds and separates muscles


attaches muscle to bone


bone cells


immature bone cells that build bone


shafts of long bones and contain yellow marrow


the ends of long bones and have red marrow


fibrous connective tissue that covers or lines the bones


blood cell formation and takes place in the red marrow


makes red blood cells

vit a, c, d, calcium, phosphorous

essential nutrients needed for bone growth

estrogen, growth hormone, testosterone

hormones that are influintial in the retention of calcium

where is red bone marrow made?

flat, spongy bone

axial, appendicular

2 divisions of the skeleton


joints in the skull

functions of bone

structure, protection, blood cell formation, movement, posture, shape

functions of muscle

heat, strength, protection

changes in the ms system with age

bone loss, muscle atrophy, brittle, fracture easily, kyphosis, decrease in flexibility, weaken, bone density decreases


bending of joint


straightening of a joint


away from the body


toward the body


movement around an axis of a joint


rotation of the forearm with palms facing up


rotation of the forearm with palms facing down


hands and toes pointing toward the body

plantar flexion

hands and toes pointing away from the body


convex curvature of the thoracic spine


concave curvature of the lumbar spine


lateral curvature of the spine

7 P's

pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, polar temp, paleness, puffiness, pain


numbness or tingling


checks for infection, inflammation, anemia


erythrocyte sed rate, increases with inflammatory conditions

uric acid

checked for gout

calcium and phosphorous

inverse relationship, secreted by the thyroid and para thyroid


increases with bone cancer, decreases with osteoporosis


(liver) increases with bone or tissue damage


creatinine kinase, serum muscle enzymes, increases with muscle damage

rheumatoid factor

identifies antibodies present in conditions such as lupus, sceleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis

x-ray, CT, MRI

uses radiographic techniques to assess for fracture or bone disease


x-ray exam of the synovial joint


use of contrast media injected into the subarachnoid space to visualize spinal cord, head down for prep and up for post op

head ache

major side effect of a myelogram


internal inspection of a joint with a scope


aspiration of synovial fluid or used to instill meds


radiographic exam of a joint using contrast media, pt may experience a popping or clicking noise in joints for a few days

synovial fluid analysis

aspirate synovial fluid for infection, protein and glucose, joint is elevated for 12 hrs after apply ice 24-48 hrs

bone density

x-ray that estimates bone thickness (usually taken from the spine, hip, or waist)

bone scan

injection of a radio neucleide used to diagnose bone cancer and inflammatory disorders

gallium, thallium scan

scans bones but also picks up brain tissue and breast tissue


a piece of bone or muscle is removed to diagnose malignancy, very painful, observe for swelling and bleeding after and apply ice


same as a bone density scan


injuries to ligaments and usually affect the areas such as ankles, wrists, and knees

whip lash

a sprain of the cervical spine


an injury caused by pulling or stretching a muscle beyond its capacity


soft tissue injury resulting from a blow or blunt trauma and does not usually affect ms structures but leaves a bruised area


collection of blood in soft tissue that usually resolves in 2 weeks


a tramatic sprain in which bones are chipped at the point of ligament attachment causing ligaments to become detached


rest, ice, compression, elevate, standard treatment for tramatic injuries


occurs when articular surfaces of a joint are no longer in contact


a partial dislocation caused by trauma or disease of a joint usually the spine

foot drop

caused by pressure on the perineal nerve

volkmanns contracture

claw like deformity of the hand caused by the obstruction of arterial blood flow to the forearm and hand


a break in the continuity of a bone resulting from a blow, twisting, or crushing injury

spontaneous fracture

results from injury

pathologic fracture

results from disease such as osteo, arthritis, bone cancer

open or compound fracture

results in the bone protruding through the skin

closed or simple fracture

seen when the bone doesn't protrude through the skin


incomplete fracture, remains secure on one side


fracture line extends all the way through the bone


bone is splintered int fragments

impacted or telescope

fracture where one part is impacted into the other, you would see a shorter body part


break that runs along th slant of the length of the bone (diagonal)


break coils around the bone results from a twisting force


fragments are driven down inward (such as a head injury)


fracture across the bone


fracture up and down the bone along the length

12 months

time it takes to regain total strength of a fractured body part

extracapsular fracture

fracture occurs outside of the joint capsule

intracapsular fracture

occurs within the joint capsule

cast window

window cut out of a cast for an incision, needs to be replaced after care of the incision to prevent swelling


application of a pulling force to reduce and realign a fracture, can be used for pain relief, maintain immobilization, and relieve muscle spasms

skin traction

apply a device to the skin that indirectly affects the bones and muscles, bucks and russel

skeletal traction

devices are applied directly to the bone using wires and pins, pin care is very important, sterile procedure always and tell pt not to touch the pins

rules for traction

ensure continuous traction, maintain counter traction positioning is very important, ropes must move freely, prescribed amount of weights on, weights hang freely

avascular necrosis

decreased blood supply that causes bone death

acute compartment syndrome

causes swelling under a cast, painful, usually needs a fasciotomy


cutting into the fascia to relieve the pressure

intertrochanteric fracture of the hip

through the greater and lesser trocanter of the femur

femoral neck fracture of the hip

through the femoral wall or neck of the femur


open reduction internal fixation, go inside to fix the fracture with nails, screws, etc

external fixation

pins inserted into the bone from the skin surface higher risk of infection

pin care

sterile, asses for drainage, examine condition of pins, clean from in to out, no ointment around the pins

swan neck

deformity in rheumatoid arthritis, joints ar hyper flexed and fixed


hard calculi that develops in the joint tissue caused from gout

rheumatoid arthritis

most serious form of arthritis, leads to crippling affects females more than males, symptoms can appear as early as 20, autoimmune disease, affects the heart and blood vessels also, ESR increases


metabolic disorder that causes an accumulation of uric acid in the blood and urine caused by ineffective metabolism of purines


protein seen in organ meats, yeast, alcohol, and scallops


systemic lupus erythematosis, a butterfly rash that spans over the nose and cheeks, painful, no cure, immunosuppresants to treat or steroids


alkylosis spondylitis, chronic progressive disorder affecting the sacroiliac joint, hip joint, and synovial joints, affects men more than women, no cure

lyme disease

ms problems caused by a deer tick, first sign is a bulls eye rash, 4 wks after bite you will see arthritic symptoms, antibiotics to cure


abnormal immobility and consolidation and obliteration of a joint


shortening of skeletal muscle tissue that is not subjected to normal stretching and contraction


a sound like that of hair rubbed between the fingers occurs when bone fragments rub together


formation of or conversion into bone or a bony substance


surgery of a joint to increase mobility or decrease pain


a partial or incomplete dislocation of a bone from its place in a joint usually the spine


weakness affecting only 1 side of the body


wasting or a decrease in size from lack of use


decreased sensation and movement


blood clot that obstructs a blood vessel


autoimmune, calcinosis, raynauds, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, telangiectasis, hardening of the skin


a chronic pain syndrome, no known cause, often mistaken for pain med seekers, rule out everything else

pagets disease

a metabolic bone disease causes a bowing of the long bones and abnormal spinal curvature, bone loss


used to treat pagets disease

primary malignant tumors

originate in the bone


most common, usually seen in the distal femur more common in men than women

metastatic bone disease

cancer originates somewhere else and metastisizes to the bone


calcium deposits on the skin


affects peripheral circulation, severe pain

esophageal dysfunction

acid reflux,


thickening and tightening of the skin of fingers and hands


dilation of capillaries causing red marks on surface of skin


post op respiratory therapy


decreased blood flow

stump care

assess dressing, keep a tourniquet at bed side in case of hemorrhage, prepare stump for prosthesis, elevate for 24-48 hrs to prevent edema

stump shrinker

compression stocking put on to help shape the amputated area and keep edema out


aspirin, used to treat mild pain, anit inflammatory, anti platelet, decreases temp

non salicylates

tylenol, same as salicylates but not an anti platelet, can cause liver failure

opioid analgesics

morphine, demorall, dilaudid, blocks pain receptors for moderate or severe pain


antagonist, blocks the opiates, used for overdoses

nonopioid analgesics, NSAIDS

clebrex, ibuprofin, naprosyn, blocks an enzyme called cox-2, used for inflammation and mild pain


fosamax, boneva, actonel, promotes calcium reabsorption, decreases calcium destruction, used to reverse osteoporosis

antirheumatic drugs

plaquenil, suppresses the immune system, immunosuppressant, not given to patients with renal or liver disease

uric acid inhibitors

allopurinol, anti gout, decreases the amount of uric acid in the blood

skeletal muscle relaxants

soma, flexeril, baclofen, to relax skeletal muscles, no driving


localized or generalized bone infection

muscular dystrophy

genetic disorder results in a loss of muscle tissue, weakness, and atrophy, no cure


MD in children


MD in adults


decreased bone mass primarily seen in women 55-65 yrs, bone looks spongy


a non systemic condition it only affects the joints, causes bones to degenerate, pain is relieved by rest, NSAIDS

what increases risk of osteoporosis?

smoking, post menopause, poor calcium intake, small frame, caffiene, chronic steroid use

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