Held and Hein (1963)
Terms in this set (37)
One kitten walked ____ and one in____.
One kitten walked unrestricted and one in a basket (restricted)
Where were they kept when not in the carousel?
in a dark place
What were the tests after time in carousel?
Bridge Test, table Test, Blink reflex test
Visual cliff test?
had to decide which side of the cliff the kitten should go to: shallow side, deep side
Blink reflex test?
moved hand really close to face
Visually guided paw placement test?
Depth perception, approaching table, paw outward
Restricted cat could not learn/did not develop normal visually guided perception ability
Cat that had free motion developed....
normally-moved in all directions
Was a _______design?
how was this a matched pairs design?
were matched on speed, direction, darkness, stripes on wall
What about the ethics?
Ethical and protection from harm issues, but some good aspects too
Nature or Nurture?
In the study by Held and Hein (kitten carousel) there were many controlled variables. a.Describe two ways in which the experience of each pair of kittens was matched. 
-Two ways in which the experience of each pair of kittens was matched was as follows: in each pair there was one 'active' and 'passive' and each pair of kittens were taken from different litters.
b. Give one reason why psychologists control variables in psychology experiments. 
-One reason why psychologists control variables in psychology experiments is because all extra variables need to be controlled in order to find out an independent and dependent variable.
Describe one of the tests of visual perception which the cats completed. 
-One of the tests of visual perception which the cats completed is when the kitten was shown the experimenter's hand moving slowly in front of it. The movement of the kittens eyes was recorded. A kitten with normal visual experience follows the movement with its eyes.
Describe one of the main findings from the study. 
-One of the main findings of the study is all of the active kittens developed a normal visually-guided paw placement response when they had spent 3 hours or less in the apparatus. No passive kitten had acquired a visually-guided paw placement. Also, all of the active kittens had normal blink responses and normal responses to the visual cliff (though the passive kittens were crossing to the shallow or deep side at random. Overall, the findings fit the idea that self-produced movement and concurrent visual feedback are better for the development of visually-guided behavior.
There are five ways in which psychologists have attempted to study this debate:
By studying human babies, or neonates
By studying cataract patients
By studying animals
By studying different cultures
By studying adaptation
The aim of the study was to test whether self produced movements related to changes in stimulation are essential for the development of certain perceptions.
Ten pairs of kittens were used, and each pair came from a different litter. In each pair, there was one active, and one passive. Kittens are higher mammals, to which humans also belong.
The method is a Laboratory experiment with a yoked control design, meaning that the rate of responding is compared to that by a control subject.
Each pair of kittens was attached to a 'roundabout' which was propelled by the movements of kitten A. Kitten A could move up, down, toward or away from the center, and rotated clockwise or counterclockwise. Kitten B was also attached to the roundabout, but was carried in a _______ so it could not control its own movements. It moved exactly the way kitten A moved. The apparatus was housed in a cylinder with black, white and metal colored vertical strips on the walls inside. The center of the roundabout, which was also striped, prevented the kittens from seeing each other.
Did any of the kittens see light before the experiment?
he point of this experiment is that both kittens were made to learn to see the world receiving the same visual stimulation. The difference was that one moved actively, while the other moved _____.
What were the tests of the capacity for the kittens to make visual-spatial discriminations.
Visually guided paw placement
Avoidance of a visual cliff
Blink to an approaching object
Visually guided paw placement involved...?
the kitten was held by the experimenter with its head and forelegs free and was carried down to the edge of the table. A kitten with normal visual experience extends its paws ready to make contact with the surface.
Avoidance of a visual cliff involved...?
the kitten is placed on the central 'bridge' from which it can stay still or walk onto either the 'shallow' or 'deep' side. A kitten with normal visual experience experience avoids the 'deep' side.
Blink to an approaching object involved...?
the kitten was held still on a standing position and the experimenter brought his hand quickly towards the kitten's face (stopping just in front of it). A kitten with normal visual experience blinks in response.
Visual pursuit of a moving object involved...?
the kitten was show the experimenter's hand moving slowly in front of it. The movement of the kitten's eyes was recorded. A kitten with normal visual experience follows the movement with it's eyes.
Pupillary reflex to light involved...?
a flashlight beam was moved across the eye and the change in pupil size was noted. The pupil of a kitten with normal visual experience shrinks in response.
Tactual placing response involved...?
the kitten was held as in the paw placement test, but its front paws were put against the vertical surface of the table. A kitten with normal visual experience response by moving its paws to the horizontal surface.
Findings for paw placement:
All of the active kittens developed a normal visually guided paw placement response when they had spent 63 hours (21 sessions) or less in the apparatus. No passive kitten had acquired a visually guided paw placement.
Findings for blink response:
All of the active kittens had normal blink responses
Findings for visual cliff
All of then active kittens had normal responses to the visual cliff, but the passive kittens were crossing to the shallow or deep side at random.
The findings fit the idea that self-produced movement and concurrent visual feedback are essential for the development of visually guided behavior.
How do we know the passive cats weren't damaged?
Following the 48 hours of freedom in a lighted room, the passive kittens were retested. They displayed normal visually guided paw-placement and performed all descents to the shallow side of the cliff.
Experience of the kittens was matched - e.g. speed and direction of travel, distance travelled, height from the floor, contact with the floor and view of apparatus
May have merely distorted inborn abilities rather than proved that the abilities were learned (construct validity?)
Can this generalize to all mammals? Even people?
Ethics of working with animals.