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29 terms

Chemistry Intermolecular Forces

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fluid
a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas
surface tension
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
sublimation
the change of state from a solid directly to a gas
dipole
created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
dipole-dipole forces
forces of attraction between polar molecules
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
colloid
a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dispersions
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
nonelectrolyte
a substance that dissolbes in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
soluble
capable of being dissolved
solute
the substance dissolved in a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
suspension
a mixture in which the particles in the solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture in constantly stirred or agitated
effervescence
the rapid escape of a gas from the liquid in which it is dissolved
heat of solution
the net amount of energy absorbed or released as heat when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
Henry's law
the solubiliby of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
hydration
a solution process with water as the solvent
immiscible
liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other
miscible
liquid solutes and solvents that are able to dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
saturated solution
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
solubility
the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
solvated
a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
solution equilibrium
the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
supersaturated solution
a solution that contains more dissolbed solute than a saaturated solution contains under the same conditions
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute that a saturated solution under the existing conditions
concentration
a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
molality
the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
molarity
the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution