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221 terms

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

ANTHRO 101
STUDY
PLAY
arranged marriage
Any marriage in which the selection of the spouse is outside the control of the bride and groom.
bride service
Work or service performed for the bride's family by the groom for a specified period of time either before or after the marriage.
bridewealth
The transfer of goods from the groom's lineage to the bride's lineage to legitimize marriage.
cross cousins
Children of one's mother's brother or father's sister.
divorce
The legal and formal dissolution of a marriage.
dowry
The transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the groom or the groom's family in order to legalize or legitimize a marriage.
endogamy
A rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group.
exogamy
A rule requiring marriage outside of one's own social or kinship group.
extended family
The family that includes in one household relatives in addition to a nuclear family.
incest taboo
The prohibition of sexual intimacy between people defined as close relatives.
kibbutz
A communal farm or settlement in Israel.
levirate
The practice of a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother.
monogamy
The marital practice of having only one spouse at a time.
nuclear family
The most basic family unit, composed of wife, husband, and children.
parallel cousins
Children of one's mother's sister or father's brother.
polyandry
The marriage of a woman to two or more men at the same time.
polygyny
The marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time.
postpartum sex taboo
The rule that a husband and wife must abstain from any sexual activity for a period of time after the birth of a child.
preferential cousin marriage
A preferred form of marriage between either parallel or cross cousins.
reciprocal exchange
The equal exchange of gifts between the families of both the bride and groom to legitimize a marriage.
role ambiguity
Confusion about how one is expected to behave.
serial monogamy
The practice of having a succession of marriage partners, but only one at a time.
sororate
The practice of a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister.
affinal
related by marriage
arranged marriage
the process by which senior family members significantly control the choice of their children's spouses
avunculocal residence
system under which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother
bifurcation
a principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for the mother's side of the family and the father's side of the family
bilateral descent
system of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated with their mother's and their father's descent groups
bilocal residence
system under which a married couple has the choice of living with the husband's family or the wife's family
bride service
the cultural rule that a man must work for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage
bridewealth
goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin to legitimize a marriage
clan
a unilineal kinship group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor but who cannot trace this link through known relatives
collateral kin
kin descended from a common ancestor but not in a direct ascendant or descendent line, such as cousins or siblings
composite (compound) family
an aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse
conjugal tie
the relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage
consanguineal
related by birth
consanguinity
blood ties between people
corporate descent groups
permanent units that have an existence beyond the individuals who are members at any given time
descent
the culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents
descent group
a group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations
double descent
the tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes
dowry
presentation of goods by the bride's kin to the family of the groom or to the couple
ego (kinship studies)
the person from whose perspective a kinship chart is viewed
endogamy
a rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group
exogamy
a rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group
extended family
family based on blood relations extending over three or more generations
incest taboos
prohibitions on sexual relations between relatives
inheritance
the transfer of property between generations
kindred
a unique kin network made up of all the people related to a specific individual in a bilateral kinship system
kinship
a culturally defined relationship established through blood ties or marriage
kinship system
the totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society
kinship terminology
the words used to identify different categories of kin in a particular culture
levirate
the custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother
lineage
a group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor
marriage
the customs, rules, and obligations that establish a special relationship between sexually cohabiting adults, between them and any children they take responsibility for, and between the kin of the married couple
matrilineage
a lineage formed by descent in the female line
matrilineal descent
a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only
matrilocal residence
system under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage
monogamy
a rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time
neolocal residence
system under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage
non-unilineal (cognatic) descent
a system of descent in which both the father's and the mother's lineages have equal claim to the individual
nuclear family
a family organized around the conjugal tie (the relationship between husband and wife) and consisting of a husband, a wife, and their children
patrilineage
a lineage formed by descent in the male line
patrilineal descent
a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only
patrilocal residence
system under which a bride lives with her husband's family after marriage
polyandry
a rule permitting a wife to have more than one husband at a time
polygamy
a rule allowing more than one spouse
polygyny
a rule permitting a husband to have more than one wife at a time
sororate
the custom whereby, when a man's wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife
succession
the transfer of office or social position between generations
unilineal descent
a rule specifying that membership in a descent group is based on links through either the maternal line or the paternal line, but not both
affinal
Relatives by marriage; in-laws.
ambilineal descent
A form of bilateral descent in which an individual may choose to affiliate with either the father's or mother's descent group.
bifurcation
A principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for the mother's side of the family and the father's side of the family.
bilateral descent
System of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated with their mothers' and their fathers' descent group.
clan
A unilineal kinship group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor but who cannot trace this link through known relatives.
cognatic descent
Any nonunilineal system of descent.
collateral kin
Kin descended from a common ancestor but not in a direct ascendent or descendent line, such as siblings and cousins.
complementary opposition
A political structure in which higher-order units form alliances that emerge only when lower-order units come into conflict.
consanguineal relatives
Relatives by blood.
consanguinity
Blood ties between people.
corporate descent groups
Permanent kinship groups that have an existence beyond the membership at any given time.
cross cousins
The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers, father's sisters).
descent
The culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents.
descent group
A group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations.
double descent
The tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes.
exogamy
A rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group.
genitor
A biological father.
inheritance
The transfer of property between generations.
kindred
A unique kin network made up of all the people related to a specific individual in a bilateral kinship system.
kinship
A culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or through marriage.
kinship system
The totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society.
kinship terminology
The words used to identify different categories of kin in a particular culture.
lineage
A group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor.
lineal kin
Blood relations linked through descent, such as Ego, Ego's mother, Ego's grandmother, and Ego's daughter.
matrilineage
A lineage formed by descent in the female line.
matrilineal descent
A rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only.
nepotism
The granting of privilege or favoritism on the basis of family relationships.
nonunilineal descent
Any system of descent in which both father's and mother's lineages have equal claim to the individual.
parallel cousins
The children of a parent's same-sex siblings (mother's sisters, father's brothers).
pater
The socially designated father of a child, who may or may not be the biological father.
patrilineage
A lineage formed by descent in the male line.
patrilineal descent
A rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only.
phratry
A unilineal descent group composed of a number of clans whose members feel themselves to be closely related.
segmentary lineage system
A form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels and function in different contexts.
succession
The transfer of office or social position between generations.
totem
An animal, plant, or other aspect of the natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships with members of a group.
transmigrant
Immigrants who maintain close relations with their home countries.
transnationalism
The pattern of close ties and frequent visits by immigrants to their home countries.
unilineal descent
Descent group membership based on links through either the maternal or the paternal line, but not both.
arranged marriage
The process by which senior family members exercise a great degree of control over the choice of their children's spouses.
avunculocal residence
System under which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother.
bilocal residence
System under which a married couple has the choice of living with the husband's or the wife's family.
blended family
Kinship networks occasioned by divorce and remarriage in the United States which include the previously divorced spouses and their new marriage partners.
bride service
The cultural rule that a man must work for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage.
bridewealth
Goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin to legitimize a marriage (formerly called "bride price").
composite (compound) family
An aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse.
conjugal tie
The relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage.
consanguineal
Related by blood.
cross cousins
The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers, father's sisters).
domestic group (household)
Persons living in the same house, usually, but not always members of a family.
dowry
Presentation of goods by the bride's kin to the family of the groom or to the couple.
endogamy
A rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group.
exogamous group
A group within which one is not permitted to marry.
exogamy
A rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group.
extended family
Family based on blood relations extending over three or more generations.
fraternal polyandry
A custom whereby a woman marries a man and his brothers.
incest taboos
Prohibitions on sexual relations between relatives.
levirate
The custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother.
marriage
The customs, rules, and obligations that establish a socially endorsed relationship between adults and children, and between the kin groups of the married partners.
matrilineal
A lineage formed by descent in the female line.
matrilocal residence
System under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage.
monogamy
A rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time.
neolocal residence
System under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage.
nuclear family
A family organized around the conjugal tie (the relationship between husband and wife) and consisting of a husband, a wife, and their children.
parallel cousins
The children of a parent's same-sex siblings (mother's sisters, father's brothers).
patrilineal
A society that reckons descent through the male line.
patrilocal residence
System under which a bride lives with her husband's family after marriage.
polyandry
A rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time.
polygamy
A rule allowing more than one spouse.
polygyny
A rule permitting a man to have more than one wife at a time.
sororal polygyny
A form of polygyny in which a man marries sisters.
sororate
The custom whereby, when a man's wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife.
stem family
A nuclear family with a dependent adult added on.
surrogate motherhood
A variety of reproductive technologies in which a woman helps a couple to have a child by acting as a biological surrogate, carrying an embryo to term.
affinal kin
People related through marriage.
ambilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence.
bride service
A designated period of time when the groom works for the bride's family.
bridewealth
Money or valuable goods paid by the groom or his family to the bride's family upon marriage; also called bride-price.
conjugal family
A family established through marriage.
consanguineal family
A family of "blood relatives" consisting of related women, their brothers, and the women-s offspring.
consanguineal kin
Biologically related relatives, commonly referred to as blood relatives.
cross cousin
Child of a mother's brother or a father's sister.
dowry
Payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage, either to her or to her husband.
endogamy
Marriage within a particular group or category of individuals.
exogamy
Marriage outside the group.
extended family
Two or more closely related nuclear families clustered together into a large domestic group.
family
Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. The family may take many forms, ranging from a single parent with one or more children, to a married couple or polygamous spouses with or without offspring, to several generations of parents and their children.
fictive marriage
Marriage by proxy to the symbols of someone not physically present to establish the social status of a spouse and heirs.
group marriage
Marriage in which several men and women have sexual access to one another; also called co-marriage.
household
The basic residential unit where economic production, consumption, inheritance, childrearing, and shelter are organized and carried out.
incest taboo
The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent and child and sibling relations at a minimum.
marriage
A culturally sanctioned union between two or more people that establishes certain rights and obligations between the people, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. Such marriage rights and obligations most often include, but are not limited to, sex, labor, property, childrearing, exchange, and status.
matrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the wife's mother's place of residence.
monogamy
Marriage in which both partners have just one spouse.
neolocal residence
A pattern in which a married couple establishes the household in a location apart from either the husband's or the wife' relatives.
nuclear family
A group consisting of one or two parents and dependent offspring, which may include a stepparent, stepsiblings, and adopted children. Until recently this term referred only to the father, mother, and child(ren) unit.
parallel cousin
Child of a father's brother or a mother's sister.
patrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the husband's father's place of residence.
polyandry
Marriage of a woman to two or more men at one time; a form of polygamy.
polygamy
One individual having multiple spouses at the same time; from the Greek words poly ("many") and gamos ("marriage").
polygyny
Marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time; a form of polygamy.
serial monogamy
A marriage form in which a man or a woman marries or lives with a series of partners in succession.
affinal relatives
Kinship ties formed through marriage (that is, in-laws).
ambilineal descent
A form of descent in which a person chooses to affiliate with a kin group through either the male or the female line.
ambilocal residence
A residence pattern in which the married couple may choose to live with either the relatives of the wife or the relatives of the husband.
avunculocal residence
A residence pattern in which the married couple lives with or near the husband's mother's brother.
bilateral descent
A type of kinship system whereby individuals emphasize both their mother's kin and their father's kin relatively equally.
clans
Unilineal descent groups, usually comprising more than ten generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to a common ancestor.
cognatic descent
A form of descent traced through both females and males.
collaterality
Kin relationships traced through a linking relative.
consanguineal relatives
One's biological or blood relatives.
descent
Tracing one's kinship connections back through a number of generations.
double descent
A system of descent in which individuals receive some rights and obligations from the father's side of the family and others from the mother's side.
EGO
The person in kinship diagrams from whose point of view the relationships are traced.
Eskimo (Inuit) system
The kinship system most commonly found in the United States; it is associated with bilateral descent. Usually a mother, father, and their children live together.
fictive kinship
Relationships among individuals who recognize kinship obligations although the relationships are not based on either consanguineal or affinal ties.
horizontal function of kinship
The ways in which all kinship systems, by requiring people to marry outside their own small kinship group, function to integrate the total society through marriage bonds between otherwise unrelated kin groups.
Iroquois system
A system associated with unilineal descent in which the father and father's brother are called by the same term, as are the mother and the mother's sister.
kindred
All of the relatives a person recognizes in a bilateral kinship system.
kinship system
Those relationships found in all societies that are based on blood or marriage.
lineage
Unilineal descent group whose members can trace their line of descent to a common ancestor.
lineality
Kin relationships traced in a single line, such as son, father, and grandfather.
matriarchy
The rule or domination of women over men.
matrilineal descent
A form of descent whereby people trace their primary kin connections through their mothers.
matrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which the married couple lives with or near the relatives of the wife.
moieties
Complementary descent groups that result from the division of a society into halves.
neolocal residence
A residence pattern in which the married couple has its own place of residence apart from the relatives of either spouse.
patrilineal descent
A form of descent whereby people trace their primary kin relationships through their fathers.
patrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which the married couple lives with or near the relatives of the husband's father.
phratries
Unilineal descent groups composed of related clans.
reproductive technologies
Recent developments, such as in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, and sperm banks, that are making the reckoning of kin relationships more complex.
segmentation
The process that takes place within a lineage whereby small subdivisions of a lineage will oppose one another in some social situations but will coalesce and become allies in other social situations.
unilineal descent
Tracing descent through a single line (such as matrilineal or patrilineal) as compared to both sides (bilateral descent).
vertical function of kinship
The way in which all kinship systems tend to provide social continuity by binding together different generations.
clan
An extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological.
descent group
Any kin-ordered social group with a membership in the direct line of descent from a real (historical) or fictional common ancestor.
EGO
The central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced.
Eskimo system
Kinship reckoning in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as a lineal system.
fission
The splitting of a descent group into two or more new descent groups.
Hawaiian system
Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term.
Iroquois system
Kinship reckoning in which a father and father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and mother's brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, while cross cousins are classified separately but not equated with relatives of some other generation.
kindred
An individual's close blood relatives on the maternal and paternal sides of his or her family.
kinship
A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations.
lineage
A unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms.
matrilineal descent
Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership.
moiety
Each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent.
patrilineal descent
Descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership; also known as agnatic or male descent.
phratry
A unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether or not they really do.
totemism
The belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.
unilineal descent
Descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line; also known as unilateral descent.