History Final 2013
Terms in this set (62)
a powerful Japanese leader, originally militarily who ruled under the titular authority of the emperor
a noble who received land from a lord
System that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages.
a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
an economic system in the middle ages in which people invested in trade and goods in order to make a profit
thought that the monarch was chosen to lead the country by God
John Calvin's idea, a government controlled by the Church
a person can't be held in prison without first being charged with a crime
individualism: the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs from the Enlightenment
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
A medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members wages and prices.
A series of military expeditions in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries by Westrn European Christians to reclain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims
Hundred Year's War
Series of battles between England and France over French Territories and dispute over who and how France would be ruled
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Committee of Public Saftey
12 people led by Robespierre, took control, began Reign of Terror, killed anyone they considered an internal enemy
major kingdom in Vietnam that created the foundation of Vietnamese government society and culture.
Council of Trent
a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
an economic practice during the Reformation whose goal was to achieve a favorable balance of trade in which goods exported were of greater value than those imported to encourage profit
the system of government in Japan in which the emperor exercised only titular authority while the shogun (regional military dictators) exercised actual political power
the lawmaking body of British government
characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows
characterized by rounded arches, massive walls, small windows
the split in the Church when you had a pope in Avignon and one in Rome.
A ruler of a kingdom or empire
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
prohibitory act issued by the pope which forbid priests from dispensing the sacraments of the church in the hope of exerting pressure against the political leader in the early Middle Ages
Joan of Arc
daughter of well- do peasants. deeply religious. she came to believe that her favorite saints had commanded her to free France. Came to be known as "Maid of Orleans." She gave the French armies found new confidence in themselves. She brought the war to a decisive turning point. Captured in 1430, and turned over to the English Inquisitions on charges of witchcraft. She was condemned to death and burned at the stake in 1431.
William the Conqueror
The first Norman king of England. Duke of Normandy. Defeated and killed the last Anglo-Saxon king of England at the Battle of Hastings.
the English nobles who resented his power, forced him to sign the Magna Carta.
greatest advocate of Catholicism
Control of part of America/Italy/Netherlands
Strengthen control-strong monarchical authority
Each land has own government
Queen during the golden age.
The Virgin Queen.
Passed the act of supremacy
She defeated the Spanish Armada.
Philip the second wanted to marry her, but she tuned him down.
This is the showdown between Protestants and Christians.
This marks the beginning of the decline of Spain.
Marks the beginning of England's march to power.
Sent the message that England were staying Protestant.
Has the parliament to balance out the power.
was a monk and a professor at the University of Wittenberg, where he lectured on the bible.
Came to believe that humans are not saved through their good works but through faith in the promises of God, made possible by the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.
was part of the reformation but disagreed with Luther about whether or not the body and blood of Christ were really the body and blood and started Calvinism in Switzerland and mostly in Geneva
Known in history as Charles the Great.
was determined and decisive, intelligent and inquisitive, a strong statesman.
was patron of learning.
he greatly expanded the territory he inherited. He controlled most of western and central Europe.
Eleanor of Aquitaine married him.
was successful in strengthening the power of the royal courts.
He expanded the number of criminal cases to be tried in the kings court and devised means for taking property cases from local courts to the royal courts.
wanted to punish the clergymen but was not allowed to.
had 4 of his soldiers go to Canterbury and murdered the archbishop.
came to the throne once Queen Elizabeth 1 died.
Was originally King James VI of Scotland.
Espoused the divine right of kings, a viewpoint that alienated Parliament.
wanted to rule as and absolute monarch.
he is catholic.
He is in charge of the Anglican church.
He is Scottish.
Wrote a new bible --> an updated bible written as a poetic type, official Anglican church bible.
Still the official bible of the Anglican church today.
Peter the Great
Ruler of Russia.
decided to make a trip to the West to get a firsthand look at trading and modern techniques.
He returned to Russia with a firm determination to westernize Russia.
conscripted peasants for 25- year stints of service to build an army of 210,000 men and also formed the first navy Russia ever had.
divided Russia into provinces.
wanted to "open a window to the west" so he fought with Sweden and won to gain control of the Baltic sea.
In 1703 he began the construction of a new city, Saint Petersburg.
Catherine the Great
part of the Enlightenment absolutism.
The 1st Tudor king-worked to establish strong monarchical government
Abolished noble armies=end to noble war among one another
Did not overload middle class/nobility with taxes
Ivan the Terrible
first ruler to take the title of tsar.
he expanded the territories of Russia eastward and crushed the power of the nobility.
He was known as Ivan the Terrible because of his ruthless deeds, among them, he stabbed his son to death in a heated argument.
came to an end in 1598.
Mary Queen of Scots
also known as Mary Stuart.
was queen of France from 1559 to 1560.
was part of the rebellion known as the Rising in the North.
was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth I and was executed.
• He moved the government to Versailles.
• Created an army of men
• Help 4 wars between
• had control over central policy making.
• Versailles became the new political center for the government.
• Wanted to create a large army
• Wanted to expand his territories.
• The largest war of Louis reign--> the war of Spanish succession
- revoked the Edict of Nantes- ended the persecution of France protestants.
• Built the palace of Versailles
• Purchased a lot of art
• Listened to a lot of classical music.
• The Mona Lisa hung in his bedroom.
• highered a lot of French artists to decorate the palace.
• Loved the Opera
• Had a fully functioning theater in the palace.
• Drives the creation of operas.
William and Mary
glorious revolution when the parliament invited William duke of orange to overthrow James II, and they agreed to sign the English bill of rights.
was the first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope, inaugurating a new age in astronomy.
discovered: mountains on the moon, four moons revolving around Jupiter, and sunspots.
scientific revolution, English, discovered the heart was the center of the circulatory system, mapped the circulatory system throughout the body and explained how it worked.
Native of Poland
was a mathematician who felt that Ptolemy's geocentric system failed to accord with the observed motions of the heavenly bodies and hoped that his Heliocentric Theory would offer a more accurate explanation.
He argued that the sun was motionless at the center of the universe and that all the planets revolved around it and that the moon just revolved around Earth.
french revolution, reign of terror, head of the committee of public safety used ot terrorize the people sending over 2 thousand people to the guillotine, in under 200 days. And took out any trace of the Catholic church. got rid of playing cards, changed the calendar, and eliminated Sundays.
viewed by many as the founder of modern European feminism. Her famous work- vindication of the Rights of Women.
was a baron of Montesquieu and came from French nobility, thinker of enlightenment and wrote the Spirit of the Laws which was a comparative study of governments and used scientific method in social and political areas and had the ideas of the separation of powers into the legislative executive and judicial branches.
enlightenment, he wrote two famous pieces, philosophical pieces, candeed, he is one of the great enlightenment thinkers and he spoke about freedom of speech and freedom of religion
northern renaissance writer.
political beliefs were presented in two major works. The Discourse of the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, he argued that people had adopted laws and governors in order to preserve their private property. The social contract, he found and answer in the concept of the social contract, where an entire society agreed to be governed by its general will.
an Italian who wrote The Prince--> one of the most influential works on political power in the Western world.
His major concerns in The Prince were the acquisition, maintenance, and expansion of political power as he means to restore and maintain order.
Leonardo Da Vinche
was the impetus behind the High Renaissance concern for the idealization of nature, moving from of realistic portrayal of the human figure to an idealized form.
born an Archduchess of Austria.
Became Queen of France- 1774-1792.
Named Madame Deficit by the french people for all the money she spent and for sympathizing with France's enemies, particularly Austria.
Executed by the guillotine in 1973 for treason to the principles of the revolution.
Brought an end to the Revolution
"Son of the Revolution"
Rose in power in the military and then to supreme power to France'
Named himself Emperor.
henry the 8th - breaks away from Roman Catholic Church (anglogan church)
edward - died very young
mary tutor- bloody mary
elizabeth the 1st- tutor line ends
James the 1st of England- also James the 6th in Scottland
Charles the 1st
Oliver Cromwell- Lord Protector
Charles the 2nd- restoration
James the 2nd- political parties (whigs and tories)
William and Mary- bloodless revolution, glorious revolution
Louis the 14th- absolute monarch
Louis the 16th- overthrown in french revolution