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46 terms

ch 13

STUDY
PLAY
oregon country
area west of the rocky mountains. did not include california
mountain men
adventurious men hiked throuhg the regions vast forests trapping animals and living off the land
rugged individualists
people who follow their own independent course in life
rendezvous
get together
Jedediah smith
led slettlers through present day wyoming to get past the rocky mountains
Manuel lisa
a latino fur trader who led a trip up the Missouri river in 1807 and founded fot manuel, the first outpost on upper missouri
james beckwourth
African American who traveled west to escape slavery; became a chief in the Crow tribe; later discovered a mountain pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that enabled thousands of pioneers and gold seekers to reach northern California
whitmans
United States frontier missionary who estanblished a post in Oregon where Christianity and schooling and medicine were available to Native Americans (1802=1847)
oregon trail
a historical route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to Oregon and the West coast.
Stephen austin
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820
santa anna
Mexican president and General, Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War.
dictator
a ruler with absolute power and authority
tejanos
people of Mexican descent born in Texas
sam houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
alamo
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
siege
enemy forces try to capture a city or fort, often By surrounding and bombarding it
William travis
commanded the garrison at the Alamo; important in rallying the men to continue fighting
battle of san jacinto
a big victory for texans, santa anna was captured, and gives texas its independence ( the battle only lasted 18 mintutes)
lone star republic
The texans had carried a flag with a simgle white star after winning independence, they nicknamed their nation the lone star republic
annex
add on
new mexico territory
It included most of the present day states of Arizona, New mexico , all of Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Colorado
william becknell
a merchant and adventurer, he was the first american to head for Sante fe. In 1821 he led a group of traders from Franklin Misourri across the plains
santa fe trail
an important trade route going between Independence, Missouri and Santa fe, New mexico used from about 1821 to 1880
self-sufficient
producing enough for its own needs
vaqueros
the Indian and Mexican cowhands who worked on the ranches
manifest destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
james polk
the eleventh President of the United States. He threatened war with Britain then backed away and split the ownership of the Northwest with Britain. He is even more famous for leading the successful Mexican-American War.
zachory taylor
Moves troops to Texas in 1846. Encounters Mexican resistance and declares war taking TX, NM, AZ
winfield scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
stephen kearny
American general in war with Mexico, he captured Santa Fe without fireing a shot
bear flag republic
aka the California republic; the result of a revolt by Americans on June 14, 1846, in the town of Sonoma against the authorities of the Mexican province of California; the Republic lasted less than a month. The republic eventually became the present-day state of California.
john fremont
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery.
chapultepec
battle at which los niños fought heroically and died defending the military academy
treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo
mexico had to give up all of california, and new mexico to the us
cede
give up
mexican cession
historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.
gadsden purchase
purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
mormans
Belonged to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830
joseph smith
founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
nauvoo
Mormons founded this Illinois town, which became an imposing and economically successful community.
refuge
a place where they would be safe from persecution
brigham young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
sutters mill
where gold was discovered in 1848
forty niners
Thousands of Americans rushed to California in search of gold. 80000 people made journey to California.
vigilantes
self-appointed law enforcers
lynched
hanged without a legal trial