prehistoric archaeology exam 2 (set 2)
Terms in this set (77)
great rift valley
area in africa where parts of the plateau's surface dropped and early human fossils are found
"handy man", first to make stone tools; extinct species of upright east African hominid having some advanced humanlike characteristics (long arms, short legs, increased brain size); 2.3-1.6 million years ago;
first upright man; primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain; acheulean hand axe; more intelligent and adaptable; skillful hunters
3.2 million year old hominid discovered in Ethiopia, was the first nearly complete skeleton found.
first to walk on two legs
"southern ape", or better known as "Lucy"; long arms and short legs, small brain increase, no tool use, no complex/abstract thought
the ability to walk upright on two legs (Australopithecus)
Increased Brain Size
brain size increases through time by species
hand axe homo ergaster and homo heidelbergensis
Ethiopia; earliest types of stone tools (2.5 mya); associated with homo habilis; simple technology, scraping and sharp cutting edges; replicated over time and across space
first to hunt in groups; care for the sick; have ritual burials
extinct robust human of Middle Paleolithic in Europe and western Asia; closest ancient humans to us; pushed into extinction by modern humans
close relatives of neanderthals also interbred with humans; 400,000 year old pinky bone and tooth; very little skeletal remains; found in Asia
extinct species of hominid discovered in 2015; off-shoot of homo erectus and not a direct ancestor to modern humans (maintained a separate population)
modern humans; huge brain size, abstract thought, culture and religion, 200-150,000 years ago
(Old Stone Age) a long period of human development before the development of agriculture
An archeologist site in South Africa where humans lived about 77,000 years ago (middle stone age); suggests far earlier development of modern human behavior than had been previously recognized. compostie tools, increased economic and social organization, elaboration,
100,000 years ago, the earliest burial ever found. Located in Isreal; adult female and infant; prepared grave and buried together formally
35,000 years ago, this was the earliest portion of the upper paleolithic era in Europe. These were the first people to craft elaborate works with ivory and create cave paintings. Personal ornaments found at site
Earliest material to create a long distance exchange network in the world. Developed during the upper paleolithic in Europe. Social and cultural integration- shared meeting, outer group ties
Figurines with exaggerated female characteristics that serve as symbols of fertility. These were a large product of the upper paleolithic, but are common to many early cultures in some form or another.
Around 29000 to 21000 years ago, this culture had reached the "Golden Age" of the Paleolithic period. Regional centers had denser occupation, but were not yet villages. There were small number burials and the first domestication of the dog; return to spearpoints
paintings on cave walls and ceilings, especially those dating from prehistoric times; praitned with dyes and animals motifs
chauvet and lascaux caves
earliest and most elaborate cave paintings in Europe (France).
Pertaining to the final phase of the Upper Paleolithic stone tool industry in Europe; hunting deer and horses at end of last ice age; use of bone and ivory
Stone tool culture that followed the gravettian (22-17kya), it is characterized by relatively finally worked tools, including the world's first hooks and needles. They used lithic reduction and percussion and pressure flaking techniques. Leaf shaped stone tools.
ice free corridor
A potential migration route for populations expanding out of Beringia, running between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets -- Rocky Mountains.(how humans got from the asian sub continent down to the americas)
beringia (bering land bridge)
A wide bridge of land between Asia and North America which appeared when the glaciers dropped the sea level (by 200 ft); connected Russia to America
the pacific route into the new world
Ice Free Corridor left a route for people (paleoindians) to migrate into North America--more suitable conditions. ("more likely route)
15,000 years ago-- First humans to inhabit the New World and travel down coastlines
(Pre-Clovis site) West. Pennsylvania site, earliest evidence of human habitation in North America// first people to enter New World was in 15,000 B.C (earlier than 13,000 B.C)
an archaeological site in south-central Chile. evidence showing that settlement in the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years; presence on pebbles, quartz, tar, trade networks, maritime adapted
Venezuela 11,860 - 14,400 BP
Early nomadic hunting water hole kill site
Mastodon, Glypton horse, sloths, bears; pelvic bone pierced by a stone spearpoint and large game hunting
fluted points (clovis points)
spearpoint that showed advancements in tool making; An elongated stone point with a fluted base; the earliest tradition of tool making in North America. Most points of this type date from around 11,000 years ago.
projectile point manufacturing technologies -folsom
Controlled breakage/careful pressure, use specific types of stones; lower edges and based with full edges and flaking along edge
blackwater draw (clovis)
Evidence of "fluted" points and other stone and bone weapons, tools, and dead megafauna; known for its well-defined stratigraphic horizons that exhibit numerous cultural sequences. Near Clovis, NM
Pleistocene overkill theory
Hunter-gatherers caused the extinction of many species after the end of the last ice age
the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age.
hunted megafauna: The earliest hominid inhabitants of the Americas; they likely migrated from Asia and are associated with the Clovis and Folsom stone tool cultures in North America and comparable tools in South America.
Those who moved frequently and did not rely on agriculture, but rather relied on their environment more (paleoindians); not farmers or agriculturalists yet
environment and subsistence
The Hunter-Gatherer-Fishes more relied on their environment for survival
Unusual Example of late Archaic site in the Southeast, dates from (1500 - 700 BC), precursor to later monumental construction, no farming, crude pottery; center of Indian communities
the archaic period
synonymous with agriculture. Most changes (artifact forms) were regional and marked by the retreat of glaciers
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley and flourished from about 700 B.C. to A.D 10; mounds to bury the dead
an expanded version of the adena culture whose settlements contained 2-3 dozen mounds
A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley from about 200 B.C to AD 400; accumulating bounds
mounds (monumental architecture)
A raised area created by prehistoric peoples and thought to be used for ceremonial and burial purposes.
-directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri.
Mississippian interaction sphere
culture that developed through maize farming; huntergatherers with seeds and gourds; corn agriculture begins and groups of people merge along river valleys; simple cheifdoms
an old Cherokee game played with a circular rock and sticks
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
domestication of animals and pastor animals
the beginnings of agriculture in the near east
Ancient rice farming in Japan. Had leisure time, they were doing fine, lived in relative abundance--affluent societies. However, for others it increased the hours of work and decreased the amount of food. Health plummeted.
belief in equality and rights/opportunity
Began to be controlled by the cities/states/city-states. More prominent.
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution. It follows the Paleolithic period. Circa 12000 to 6000 years ago.
-climate becoming hotter and drier
-more densely consentrated near oases
the Hilly Flanks hypothesis (of agriculture in the near east)
Stated: cradle of early agriculture happened by accident. Crops didn't require much hybridization, were on the verge of domestication on their own.
Oldest Neolithic community in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan: Had tower with bins around it and steep stairs with human corpses.
A late Neolithic site in Turkey that includes rooms decorated with elaborate frescoes
-where houses were repeatedly built on upon another in successive architectural generations
-gradual rise of great mounds. Dead were buried under the structure.
Purposeful religious area that was built of round circles with a diameter of 30 to 100 feet. Stacking of stone occurred, with pillars to possibly support the roof? Had elaborate decorative motifs.
Ware-shaped from moistened clay and is hardened by heat such as vases, pots, bowls, or plates, usually decorated with motifs.
the neolithic in the near east
Abandonment in Near East-movement into Europe. Became too arid for farming, so they moved!
the first farmers in europe
Around 6000 BC, southern Iberians began farming, long before others.
migration or adoption of agriculture
Agriculture was not something that spontaneously occurred, it was spread through culture sharing and then adopted by other cultures.
Before, it was believed that 85% of Europeans were from pre-glacier times. After examining it, it was recognized that males were migrating and procreating with the natives, which accounts for that high rate.
mounds which were once ancient settlements and cities
-stomped and built over, accumulation of clay, demarkation of space, division of personal property
Decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the Cardium edulis, a marine mollusk.
Marked a stage in increasing complexity of material culture and an expansion of human settlement and activity. This tied southeast Europe into the exchange routes. Metallugy.
the science or art of metals. It includes the study of their properties and structure, the separation and refining of metals from their ores, the production of alloys, and the shaping and treatment of metals by heat and rolling.
• Large concentrations
of gold and silver.
• Dates to after 4500
• 211 burials, most
plow and wheel
They were European Neolithic inventions--central Europe. Allowed unfarmable areas to become farmable.
otzi the iceman
Found on the border of Austria and Italy, frozen man; He was shot by an arrow in the back, indicating murder (just ate a meal), so he could have been crossing territories or some other murder-inducing activity. Carried many objects that are subject to examination, such as a valuable copper ax, an unfinished bow, clothing, a cape of fur, and other things.
Telheim Death Pit
Germany, evidence of large scale pre European violence, 34 executed, systematic warfare
An ancient art similar to stonehenge, with large blocks of stone sticking up from the ground and laying horizontal.
Believed to have been built in many phases around 2100 B.C.E. Features concentric rings made with sarsen (a form of sandstone) stones, wood, and smaller "bluestones:-rocks indigenous to the region.
Designating or relating to a prehistoric monument consisting or constructed of large stones. Also: designating a period, people, culture, etc., characterized by the erection of such monuments.
An early Bronze Age man whose grave was discovered during excavations at the site of a new housing development in Amesbury near Stonehenge. The grave was uncovered in May 2002, and the man is believed to date from about 2300 BC. He is nicknamed the "archer" because of the many arrowheads that were among the artifacts buried with him--a LOT of bronze age artifacts.
stones used for stonehenge and other megalithic monuments. or the heelstone and sarsen circle uprights. Avebury Fire or explosives were sometimes employed to break the stone into pieces of a suitable size for use in construction.
A period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronze/ stronger metal
the primary metal for tools and weapons.
- The demand for bronze helped create long-distance networks of trade.
bronze age swords
Stronger--more bend than break. These were leaf-bladed commonly, they began skinny, broadened, then tapered at the tip. The edge was frequently sharpened by hammering, to create a stronger cutting edge. An indication of high status.