A shelled, water-retaining egg that allows reptile, bird, and certain mammal embryos to develop on land
A poison that attacks the nervous system, causing blindness, paralysis, or suffocation
A poison that attacks the red blood cells and blood vessels, destroying circulation
An organism that is internally warmed by a heat-generating metabolic process
e. Down feathers
Feathers with smooth barbules but no hooked barbules
f. Contour feathers
Feathers with hooked and smooth barbules, allowing the barbules to interlock
A structure that allows an embryo to be nourished with the mother's blood supply
The period of time during which an embryo develops before being born
i. Mammary glands
Specialized organs in mammals that produce milk to nourish the young
2. State the five characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates.
The common characteristics of reptiles are:
Covered with tough, dry scales
Breathe with lungs throughout their lives
Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided
Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous
3. In this module, we studied reptiles, birds, and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ectothermic or endothermic.
Reptiles are ectothermic, while birds and mammals are endothermic.
4. Identify the parts of the amniotic egg:
a. amniotic fluid
b. embryo c. amnion d. allantois e. chorion f. yolk sac g. yolk h. albumen i. shell
5. State the functions of the yolk, the allantois, and the albumen.
The yolk serves as nourishment for the developing embryo. The allantois allows the embryo to breathe, and the albumen destroys pathogens that can enter the egg as well as supplying water and amino acids to the embryo. The albumen also acts as a shock-absorber.
6. Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it?
They must both molt because their body covering is not living.
7. What are the two most important functions of reptile scales?
Reptile scales prevent water loss and insulate the reptile's body.
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: snakes
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: tuataras
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: lizards
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: tortoises
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: alligators
8. These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. Classify: turtles
9. State the six characteristics that set birds apart from other vertebrates.
The common characteristics are: Endothermic Heart with four chambers Toothless bill Oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell Covered with feathers. Skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones (not a characteristic for all birds)
10. Do all birds fly?
No. There are two orders of flightless birds.
11. A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which?
If the blood sample has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian. If it has only one or the other, it comes from a bird. Remember, a bird's heart has four chambers, so oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood do not mix!
12. Which has a harder shell: the egg of a reptile or the egg of a bird?
A bird egg's shell is harder, because it contains lime.
13. You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea whether they came from a down feather or a contour feather. (flip)
Looking at the barbs under the microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it?
Down feathers have no hooked barbules.
14. What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation?
Contour feathers are used for flight, while down feathers are used for insulation.
15. What is a bird actually doing when it is preening?
When preening, a bird is actually oiling its feathers. The feathers need to be oiled regularly to keep the hooked barbules sliding freely along the smooth barbules and to keep the feathers essentially waterproof.
16. What is unique about a bird's method of molting?
A bird's feathers molt in pairs, one or a few at a time. This is different from arthropods and reptiles, which tend to molt their whole body covering at once.
17. What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible?
Flight engineers learned the proper structure of a wing from birds. They also learned how to make strong, hollow tubes from studying bird bones. Finally, they learned how to reduce wing turbulence from birds.
18. Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone from an amphibian?
The amphibian's bone is heavier. Birds have air-filled cavities that make their bones lighter than other vertebrates' bones.
19. State the five characteristics that set mammals apart from other vertebrates.
The common characteristics are: Hair covering the skin Reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviparous Nourish their young with milk secreted from specialized glands Four-chambered heart Endothermic
20. What is the principal function of underhair?
Underhair's main job is insulation.
21. What do we usually see when we look at a mammal, underhair or guard hair?
We usually see the mammal's guard hair, because that's what's on top.
22. Name a nonplacental mammal.
Any mammal from orders Monotremata or Marsupialia is non-placental. Thus, any one of the following: duck-billed platypuses, spiny anteaters, kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, opossums.
23. What is the main difference between offspring born after a long gestation period and offspring born after a short gestation period?
Offspring born after a long gestation period are more developed than those born after a short gestation period.