chapter 24: infections of the central nervous system
Terms in this set (57)
A rare but often fatal inflammation of the brain caused by the ameba Acanthamoeba.
African sleeping sickness
A protozoan disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei transmitted via the bite of the tsetse fly. The disease begins with a localized lesion, followed by lymphadenopathy, fever, and damage to the central nervous system leading to coma and death.
Any of a group of viruses transmitted by arthropod vectors, especially insects.
The absence of reflexes.
pl. arthroconidia A fungal spore produced from the fragmentation of specialized hyphae. It is the infectious agent of Coccidioides immitis and C. posodasii, which can cause coccidioidomycosis.
Inflammation of meninges due to nonbacterial causes, including viruses.
Referring to vaccines, live but crippled virus or bacteria injected into a host to stimulate an adaptive immune response.
A selectively permeable membrane made up of tightly packed capillaries that supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. Large molecules and most pathogens cannot permeate the narrow spaces. Fat-soluble (lipophilic) molecules and oxygen can dissolve through the capillary cell membranes and are absorbed into the brain.
A food-borne disease involving flaccid muscle paralysis; caused by a Clostridium botulinum toxin.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
A prion disease that infects cattle, characterized by a slow deterioration of brain functions. It is invariably fatal.
A Candida infection of the meninges, often seen in premature neonates.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
A clear fluid, derived from blood, that bathes the spinal cord and brain.
An infection of the meninges caused by the fungus Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
A prion disease that infects humans, characterized by a slow deterioration of brain functions. It is invariably fatal.
A fungal infection of the CNS caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. It is a serious concern among immunocompromised patients.
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus
A positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus transmitted to birds, humans, and horses via a mosquito vector.
The administration of antibiotics according to a patient's symptoms and one's understanding of infectious disease before the pathogen has been identified; used in life-threatening situations, such as meningitis.
Inflammation of the brain.
Diseased or damaged brain such as that resulting from an infection.
The invagination of the cell membrane to form a vesicle that contains extracellular material.
Fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane to release vesicle contents into the extracellular milieu.
Extreme sensitivity to stimuli of one or more senses, especially skin.
Food-borne disease caused by Listeria monocytogenes.
A spinal tap; medical procedure used to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid from a patient.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
An arenavirus transmitted from rodents to humans that causes meningitis, encephalitis, and meningioencephalitis.
Inflammation of the meninges.
Inflammation of the meninges and the brain.
pl. meninges Set of three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord; the membranes are (from the inside going out) the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater.
A neuron that sends signals from the central nervous system to muscles and glands to produce movement.
A fungal infection.
Inflammation of the spinal cord.
A life-threatening infection of the central nervous system caused by the pathogenic ameba Naegleria fowleri.
A virus that preferentially infects neurons.
An inability to bend the neck forward touching chin to chest; the symptom is a sign that the meninges are irritated and is a hallmark of meningitis.
A sensation of tingling, prickling, burning, or numbness on the skin due to pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord that delivers sensory information to the central nervous system (CNS) and returns motor commands to muscles and other parts of the body.
pl. petechiae A small red spot on the skin due to blood leaking from capillaries under the skin, resulting from depletion of clotting factors.
Elevated number of white blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid.
A group of neurological diseases caused by migration of poliovirus into the cerebrospinal fluid.
Inflammation of the brain due to a virus or other pathogen that directly attacks the brain.
An infectious agent that causes propagation of misfolded host proteins; consists of a defective version of the host protein.
Patches of purplish discoloration on the skin due to hemorrhaging of capillaries.
A deadly infectious disease caused by the rabies virus, which invades the nervous system, including the brain.
Inflammation of a spinal nerve root.
Oral polio vaccine made of live, attenuated virus.
Injected polio vaccine made of inactivated virus.
Inflammation of the brain caused by a spreading infection or inflammation of the meninges.
Neuron that transmits sensory information about the environment and state of the organism to the central nervous system.
The tetanus-causing potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani.
Deadly disease caused by the Clostridium tetani exotoxin, tetanospasmin, which interferes with nerve transmission and forces uncontrollable muscle contraction.
Disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which is typically asymptomatic but can be severe in the immunocompromised and in fetuses.
Transport of vesicle-bound macromolecules across a cell; common in epithelial cells. The process is co-opted by some pathogens to aid in invasion of host tissue.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)
General term for a prion disease.
Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP)
Polio acquired as the result of vaccination with a Sabin vaccine whose virus reverted to a virulent form.
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
A human form of mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), characterized by a slow deterioration of brain functions. It is invariably fatal.
West Nile virus (WNV)
An RNA virus that is endemic to birds and is transmitted to the dead-end hosts, humans and horses, by mosquitoes, to cause West Nile encephalitis.