Science note cards
Terms in this set (44)
The layer of rock that forms the Earth's outer surface.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (note: a "fluid" is not the same as a "liquid")
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface.
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another.
The soft layer of teh mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
A dark, dense, igneous rock found in oceanic crust.
How tightly packed the molecules of a substance are; the amount of mass in a certain volume.
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which the rocks move.
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
A light-colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust.
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth
The layer of hot, solid material between the Earth's crust and core.
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced.
A layer of molten iron and nickel inside the Earth.
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithoshpere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
The direct transfer of heat through space by electromagnetic waves.
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergentplate boundary.
A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.
Vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake.
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
A deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.
Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks.
An earthquake that occurs after a larger earhquake in the same area.
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.
The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.
The block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault.
The process by which an earthquake's volent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud.
moment magnitude scale
A scale that rates earthquakes by estmating the total energy released by an earthquake.
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust.
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side.
Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement.
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface.
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little
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