50 terms

Quiz for ch. 20 and 21

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Which organ is an accessory organ to the digestive system?
• Teeth
• Tongue
• Salivary glands
• Liver
• Pancreas
• Gallbladder
What's the first step in digestion?
Mechanical digestion
Which layer of the digestive tract has lymphatic vessels and nerves in it?
Submucosa
Give one purpose of the mesenteries
• Suspend the digestive organs within the abdominal cavity while anchoring them loosely to the abdominal wall.
• Contain blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and lymph nodes that supply the digestive tract.
Where does digestion begin?
The mouth
What does the soft palate consist of?
Mostly skeletal muscle, forms an arch between the mouth and nasopharynx
The main component of saliva is?
Water
What does the bulk of the tooth consist of?
Firm, yellowish tissue called dentin.
What can't regenerate when a tooth is injured?
Enamel
Where is the pyloric sphincter?
Between the stomach and duodenum
Where does most of digestion and the absorption of nutrients happen?
The intestine
If a person has a deficiency of vitamin B12, which component of gastric juice are they potentially lacking?
Hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes
Which cells secrete digestive enzymes?
Chief cells
When your mouth begins to water when you smell good food, which phase of gastric secretion is this?
Cephalic phase
How does the liver receive oxygen-poor blood from the digestive organs and spleen?
The portal vein
What structure in the liver does blood filter through to remove toxins and hormones?
Sinusoids
What's the correct path that bile uses as it travels to the gallbladder?
Right and left hepatic ducts,
common hepatic ducts,
common bile duct
What are the functions of the gallbladder?
Stores and concentrates bile.
What are the cells that secrete digestive enzymes called?
Acinar cells
Describe the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK).
• Causes gallbladder contraction (forces bile into the bile duct and release of pancreatic enzymes.
• It also prompts the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax, which allows bile and pancreatic juice to enter the duodenum.
Where in the intestine does most of the digestive processes take place?
duodenum
What do the folds and microscopic projections in the jejunum do?
Give the jejunum an enormous surface area, making it an ideal location for nutrient absorption.
Name a major function of large intestines.
Absorbs large amounts of water from the residue before passing the resulting waste material (feces) out of the body.
What does not produce digestive enzymes?
Cellulose
The primary function of the stomach is?
Store Food
What's a calorie?
Energy that the body uses as fuel.
What are some characteristics of basal metabolic rate?
Body size, composition, gender, and age.
What are some characteristics of leptin?
Signals that the body has enough energy stores, such as body fat, and, therefore, suppresses appetite.
What produces the hunger sensation?
Ghrelin
Which hormone is secreted in the duodenum and jejunum?
Cholecystokinin
What is a micronutrient?
Small quantities of vitamins and minerals.
The body's primary source of energy is?
Carbohydrates
What is a disaccharide?
Simple sugars; Broken down into monosaccharides during the digestive process . Ex. Table sugar, lactose, and maltose.
Discuss the role of cellulose in regards to nutrition?
• Because the body cant digest cellulose, so its not considered a nutrient.
• It absorbs water in the intestines and swells. This adds bulk to the stool which stretches the colon and increases peristalsis
Why should we consume more complex carbohydrates?
These foods contain other vital nutrients in addition to carbohydrates.
Name a vitamin that can be absorbed in the absence of fat?
Vitamin C
What are some characteristics of lipids?
Fats; act as a reservoir of excess energy. Excess carbohydrates are converted to fat.
What is different about essential fatty acids?
Must be obtained through diet
What are some sources of unsaturated fat?
Nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils
Discuss the digestion of protein.
Proteins are broken down into their individual amino acids. Once absorbed, the body recombines the amino acids to create a new protein for a specific purpose.
What are some characteristics of nonessential amino acids?
Not essential to be consumed through diet
What is the greatest challenge for someone on a vegan diet?
Getting essential amino acids.
What's unique about fat-soluble vitamins?
They depend on dietary fats to be absorbed by the intestines
If your patient has a wound on their leg, which vitamin would be beneficial for them?
Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C
The goal of glucose catabolism is?
Is to generate adenosine triphosphate which cells use energy for.
What are some characteristics of glycolysis?
• Takes places without oxygen or with oxygen
• Splits one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid
During intense activity, how does the body attempt to get energy?
Pyruvic avid is converted to lactic acid
What becomes of the lactic acid that is stored in the liver?
It turns into pyruvic acid for aerobic respiration
The first step in aerobic respiration is?
Pyruvic acid enters the mitochondria and is converted into acetyl coenzyme A
The most energy is achieved by which process?
aerobic
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