43 terms

The Blood and Vascular System

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What substances does the cardiovascular system transport through out the body?
-Nutrients
-Oxygen and carbon dioxide
-Hormones
-Ions
-Transports metabolic wastes to the kidneys
-Transports leukocytes to aid in fighting infectious agents
What are the two component of blood?
Plasma - Liquid matrix of blood

Formed elements - blood cells and cell fragments that are suspended in the plasma.
What are the formed elements blood?
- Erythrocytes (red blood cells): transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
- Leukocytes (white blood cells): function in the immune system
- Platelets: involved in blood clotting
What does whole blood consist of?
Plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
What can whole blood be fractioned down to?
Plasma
Packed cells
Platelets
What does packed cells consist of?
Mostly erythrocytes
How much of whole blood is plasma?
55%
What does plasma consist of?
- 92% water
- 7% proteins (albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, regulatory proteins)
- 1% other solutes (electrolytes, organic nutrients, organic waste)
How much of the body is formed blood?
45%
What's the difference between plasma and interstitial fluid?
Dissolved oxygen in plasma is higher
Therefore, oxygen diffuses into the tissues.

Carbon dioxide concentration in plasma is lower. Therefore, carbon dioxide diffuses out of the tissues.

Plasma consists of dissolved protein (interstitial fluid does not)
What are the three classes of protein in the blood?
60% Albumin
Contributes to the osmotic pressure, transports fatty acids and steroids, smallest of the proteins

35% Globulins
Act as immunoglobulins (antibodies)
Act as transport proteins (transport ions and hormones)

4% Fibrinogen
Involved in blood clotting, largest of the proteins
Significance of a lack of a nucleus for RBC?
Allows the cell to be flexible as it travels through the circulatory system.

Allows for more room for hemoglobin
Significance of a lack of mitochondria in RBC?
- Mitochondria use oxygen to manufacture ATP

- Without mitochondria, oxygen can be transported to the tissues instead of being "used" by the mitochondria.
How many Leukocyte or White Blood Cell are in whole blood?
5

Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

Agranulocytes: monocytes, lymphocytes
What do leukocytes do?
When the body is compromised, the white blood cells multiply to combat the invading agent or allergen, etc.

-only live a few days.
What is a Neutrophil (WBC - Granulocyte)?
- Granules contain chemicals to kill bacteria
- Typically the first WBC at the bacterial site
- Very active phagocytic cells
Nucleus is multilobed
What is a Eosinophils (WBC - Granulocyte)?
- Granules release chemicals that reduce inflammation

-Attack a foreign substance that has reacted with circulating antibodies (such as an allergic reaction or parasites)

-Typically have a bilobed nucleus
What is a Basophils (WBC - Granulocyte)?
- Granules release histamine and heparin

- Histamine dilates blood vessels

-Heparin prevents abnormal blood clotting

-Nucleus is usually hidden due to all the granules
What is a Monocytes (WBC - Agranulocytes)?
- Large phagocytic cells
- Release chemicals to attract other phagocytic cells
- Release chemicals to attract fibroblasts
- Fibroblasts produce collagen fibers to surround an infected site
What is a Lymphocytes (WBC - Agranulocytes)?
-Responsible for specific immunity

-Can differentiate to form T cells, B cells, and NK cells

-Nucleus is typically large and round leaving a small halo around the entire nucleus or part of it.
What cells can a Lymphocyte differentiate into?
T cells - Attack foreign cells directly
B cells - Secrete antibodies to attack foreign cells
NK cells - Responsible for immune surveillance
What is the purpose of platelets
Responsible for clotting. Not real cells.
Name two platelet disorders.
Thrombocytopenia: Lower than normal number of platelets.

Thrombocytosis: Higher than normal number of platelets.
Name the two group of blood vessels.
Pulmonary circuit: Blood goes to and from the lungs

Systemic circuit: Blood goes to the rest of the body and back to the heart
Name the three layers of the vessel walls.
Intima (innermost layer - a thin endothelium layer)
Media (middle layer - smooth muscle)
Adventitia (outermost layer)
Does and artery or a vein have more muscle layer in its wall?
Arteries are thicker.
What layer of the anchors the blood vessel in position?
The adventitia (outermost). Made up of collagen.
What is an artery?
Carry blood away from the heart and veins.
What is a vein?
Carry blood to the heart.
What does a capillary bed do?
Feeds and removes waste from cells.
Name the three classes of blood?
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries
What is the flow of blood?
Artery, arterioles, capillaries, (gas exchange), venules, veins, heart.
How many RBCs can get through a capillary at one time?
1
What are the three types of capillaries?
Continuous capillaries: the most common type (tight junctions. Nothing can pass)

Fenestrated capillaries (larger molecules can pass)

Sinusoids, or discontinuous capillaries (Liver has these capillaries)
Anastamosis in the radial and brachial artery.
Where the radial and brachial artery join to ensure blood flow.
What is the hepatic portal system?
A major venus portal system. (a portal between the general system)
What veins drain the GI Track?
Inferior and Superior Mesentery veins.
What happens to veins when arteries branch out?
Veins join.
What two veins join to make the hepatic portal vein?
Superior mesenteric vein and Inferior mesenteric vein.
What forms the basilar artery (an important blood source to the brain)?
The vertebral arteries (one on each side) that run up through the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebrae.
What is the first branch off the external carotid artery.
Lingual artery
When the abdominal aorta ends, what does it bifurcate into?
Common iliac artery
What is the main source of blood to the brain?
Circle of Willis