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Ch. 16: Adaptive Immunity
Terms in this set (44)
Molecule (toxin or foreign object) capable of initiating an immune response
Actual part of the molecule that is recognized by antibody
What are the two branches of the immune system?
Antibody immune system
Uses secreted antibodies to fight pathogens
Cell-mediated immune system
Destroys infected host cells. Kills infected cells
Basic antibody structure
4 polypeptide chains
2 light chains
2 heavy chains
Antigen binding site
What does the antigen binding site stick to?
Epitope on microbe
Where do B cells mature?
Where do B cells go?
Where are B cell receptors?
Expressed on the surface of the B cell.
What is the most simple antibody immune response?
Just B cell response
How do B cells work?
B cell receptors on the B cell match the foreign antigens
The B cell replicates itself into plasma cells that have lots of ER
Plasma cells produce antibodies that match foreign antigen
What are the 3 functions of antibodies?
Molecule that enhances pahgocytosis
Blocks attachment to the host cell, covered by antibodies
Part of phagocytosis
Antibody can act as an opsonin.
Phagocyte recognizes constant site of antibody
Clumping due to antibody's ability to stick to two binding sites
T Cell function
Involved in activation other cells in the immune response
Cytotoxic T cells (Tc)
Directly kills virus-infected cells or cancer cells
Type 1 Helper t cells
Th1 help Tc cells
Type 2 Helper cells
Help B cells
T cell receptors
Also have receptors
Proteins embedded in the cell membrane
Only one antigen binding site (B cells have 2)
What are cytokines?
Used for cell to cell communication
Send signaling molecules
Help activate B and Tc cells
Antibody Immune Response Pathway
(used mostly for bacterial infcections)
1. Antigen presentation
2. Th activation
3. Activation of B cells
4. Clonal expansion of plasma cells
5. Memory B cells
Antigen presentation use what kind of cells
What are APCs?
WBC that has pahgocytized a pathogen, chopped it up into bits and then presents the pieces out on the surface of the cell
T helper cells filter past
One T helper will have the match to the antigen
All happening in the lymph
T cells differentiate into Th2 cells
Activation of B cells
Active Th2 cell encounters B cells
If match, Th2 cell will activate the B cell with the same antigen by secreting cytokines
Clonal expansion of plasma cells
When B cell is activated it divides and makes a clone of plasma cells - genetically identical
All secrete antibody that recognizes the antigen that brought the Th2 and B cell togther
Memory B cells
A few are made
Last a long time
Cell-mediated Immune Response (generally viruses)
Uses T cells
What T cells are used in cell mediated responses?
Antigen presentation in cell-mediated response
APC presents epitope
Th cell recognizes
Th differentiates and becomes active
Secretes cytokines and stimulate colonal expansion
Th differentiation and activation
Helper T cell receives signal from APC and matures into Th1
Th1 secretes cytokines
Induces maturation of Tc cells
Tc cells recognized same antigen as Th1
Perforin + Granzyme
makes hole in target infected cell
Activates host cell
Body system learns
Naturally acquired infection
Any exposure from all normal modes of transmission
Ex. Flu shot
You receive antibodies but no immunological memory
Engaged immune system
Memory T and or B cells are created
Naturally Acquired Passive vs Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
Active: Measles infection
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity vs. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
Passive: Ig injection or antisera
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