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Reduced Vowel

occurs in unstressed word or syllable - schwa most common


Variety of language used for a particular purpose or setting

Relative Clause

cannot stand alone, contains a subject and a verb, begins with a relative pronoun who or whom, whose, that or which, or a relative adverb where, when or why; functions as an adjective - answers What kind, how many, which one?


study of meaning


study of signs or symbols of all kinds, what they mean and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to

Sheltered Classroom

can be grade specific or an ESL class. Content is taught by integrating language and content objectives in the same lesson, content is scaffolded to produce comprehensible input and modified grade level curriculum, supplementary material, alternative material

Sheltered Instruction

teach grade level material in English and in a comprehensible and engaging manner while developing language skills. Contains language and content objectives, modified curriculum, supplementary materials, alternative assessment

Silent Period

1st stage of SLA at pre production stage - students may not communicate during this time except in nonverbal ways.

Silent Way

present learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on actions they witnessed. Teacher is silent after sets up classroom situations. Learners have to work with what they know to absorb learning.


sheltered instruction observation protocol

Stages of SLA

Krashen - PEPSI A- preproduction, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency

Strategy Based Instruction

students are given the opportunity to understand what they can learn and how they can learn the language more effectively and efficiently - they are aware of what strategies they can use and who/how/when to use them.


position immediately before a verb


uses different forms of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculuation, ie. "If I were---"

Subordinate Clause

part of a sentence but doesn't express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself


relaxed environment (dim light, soft music) student listen to dialogues, then practice them. STudents may become a character in the target language. Designed to place as much language teaching and emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.

Summative Assessment

given to determine what is known in a point in time, ie. state assessments, end of unit tests


social underlying proficiency (conversational language)

Superlative Adjective

requires est or most - the highest of the comparison levels

Surface Structure

what we say or write - literal meaning of words


teachers of english to speakers of other languages

Top-Down Reading Approach

reading for meaning

Transitional Bilingual Program

receive instruction in L1 for at most 3 years, the goal is to transition students out into all English classrooms. Provides support in learning core subjects while learning English. L1 not developed nor attention given to its maintenance once mainstreamed. AKA - early exit bilingual program

Two- Way/Dual Immersion

goal to develop speaking, reading, writing proficiency in both L1 & L2. The class is made up of 1/2 English speakers and 1/2 other language speaker. Instruction goes up to 50/50 in each language

Universal Grammar

Chomsky - no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction

zone of proximal development

Vygotsky- distance between developmental level and level of potential developmental. Area between independent performance and assisted performance

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