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CCJ27 Sociology of Crime
Terms in this set (98)
Define crime (legal definition)
Crime as Breaking the Law/
Crime defined by legislative codes that identify certain behaviours as punishable by the state.
Define crime (as social harm)
Sutherland's work in 1930s and 1940s pertaining to crime as "analogous to social injury"
- White Collar Crime
- Professional Crime
• Effect of State Crimes and "Stateless People"
• Introduces concept of power into
definition of crime.
Define crime (as conduct or norm violation)
Crime as Deviance/Norm Violation:
* Crime Serves Social Functions (Emile Durkheim,
* Crime Violates Conduct Norms (Thorsten Sellin,
Define crime (as human rights violation)
- War Crimes
- Abu Ghraib/Australia/ Vietnam
What are the three major sociological paradigms?
2. Social Conflict Theory
3. Symbolic Interactionism
Distinguish between official data, victimisation data, and self-report data.
Comes from governmental agencies;
used to measure crime and crime control.
Victim surveys address some of the problems of official data. Reveals more crimes are committed than reported to police.
Surveys administered to sample populations that measure attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and demographic data. Almost always anonymous. Measure unreported criminal behaviour, substance abuse, domestic violence, etc.
What is the 'dark figure' of crime?
Why may people not report crimes to police?
Crimes that are not reported to the police. Data cannot be collected of such crimes, therefore it is the dark figure of crime.
Victim data suggests this may be as high as 20 to 1.
People may not report crimes to the police due to:
• Lack of Trust
• Lack of Belief in Efficacy
What is quantitative research, and why is it used?
able to be measured/observed/tested. Necessary for inferential research, and much of criminology is interested in making inferences about larger populations.
What is qualitative research, and why is it used?
Explores new areas of criminological study, looking at how people understand and interpret crime, etc.
How is crime data collected, and what are the limitations of data collection?
Comes from governmental agencies; used to measure crime and crime control.
The government collect and report official data (on crime). In Australia, data is recorded by the police, and compiled and reported by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC).
Criminologists use data official data in three forms:
• As raw data
• As data per 100,000 or 1,000 people
• As percentage data
• Problems in reporting practices
• Problems in law enforcement practices
• Methodological problems in the reports
Outline the 4 known correlates of crime.
3. Social class
4. Ecological factors
What are the basic assumptions/arguments of classical criminology? (Beccaria & Bentham)
The Classical Perspective (Theory) on Criminology:
4 basic principles of classical criminology:
1. Individuals have the will and rationality to act according to their own will and desires
2. Individuals will calculate benefits of the crime vs consequences of the crime
3. Severity of punishment determined by the severity of the crime to deter others and reduce crime
4. Punishment must be swift and appropriate to deter others and reduce crime, (Roufa, 2011).
According to classical criminology, what is the purpose or function of punishment, and how should it be used?
Beccaria argued (in An Essay on Crimes and Punishments, 1764), the most effective response to violations of social contract = PUNISHMENT.
PURPOSE OF PUNISHMENT:
* To deter people from crime, they must be aware of the punishments, and punishment must be uniform (i.e. determinate) & swift
* Opposition to judicial discretion - only
legislatures should be able to set the severity of punishments.
The popularity and use of School of Classical Criminology can be observed in America's criminal justice system. It is referenced in the United States Constitution as well as the Declaration of Independence. An example of this can be found in the 8th Amendment that makes, "CRUEL AND UNUSUAL PUNISHMENT" unlawful and unconstitutional.
Outline the 3 socio-historical settings that gave rise to classical criminology? (UIM)
3. Modern representative governments
What are the basic assumptions of rational choice theory?
Has roots in Classical Criminology.
Assumes people are rational actors, evaluating risks vs rewards of behaviour (including crime) and then act according to what they stand to gain or lose.
In this perspective, crime is not the result of sick or wicked people, but of the lack of suitable deterrents that effectively convince people that the risk is greater than the reward - aka SEEKING PLEASURE v AVOIDING PAIN
According to rational choice theory, what are the assumptions of, and justifications for, the use of punishment?
General deterrence = punishing offenders will DETER people in general from committing those crimes. E.g. if too many people are driving drunk, sentences for drunk drivers may be increased over time in an effort to get the message through that there will be severe consequences to those who drive drunk.
Specific deterrence = getting the message through to a particular offender that they will be punished should they continue to commit further crimes. In other words, "You did this again, so this time your punishment will be harsher in an attempt to convince you that you can't keep doing this", with the implicit threat that a further offence will result in still harsher punishment.
Theorists: Beccaria, Bentham
(Roots in Classical Criminology)
Explain the theoretical relationship between rational choice theory and situational crime prevention.
* General deterrence strategies hold that crime
rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment.
* Factors of severity, certainty, and speed of
punishment may also influence one another
* Deterrence theorists suggest certainty has more of an impact than severity or speed
CERTAINTY OF PUNISHMENT:
Tipping point refers to the likelihood of getting caught reaching a critical level to deter a person from crime
SEVERITY OF PUNISHMENT & DETERRENCE:
* There is little consensus that the severity of
punishment alone can reduce crime
* Capital punishment does not appear to deter
Define biological determinism.
The idea that all human behaviour is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes.
Theorists: Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer
Related to: BIOLOGICAL AND BIO-SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS of Crime.
Knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory/observable experience. Promotes rationalism and skepticism.
Define positivism (+ related theorist etc.)
Positivism = recognizes only positive facts and observable phenomena. BEST defined as an epistemology.
Causes of pathology can only be understood through scientific methodology.
Comte = "science of society" = known as positivism.
Theorist: August Comte
Related Theories: BIOLOGICAL AND BIO-SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS of crime.
(Also TRAIT THEORIES).
Outline the basic biological and bio-social theories of crime (there are 3 - GAN).
- Genetic theories
- Arousal theories
- Neurological theories
What are genetic theories of crime?
Suggests that an individual inherits criminality, or inherits a propensity for criminal behavior.
Research to date does support the notion that crime is inherited to some extent. However, this does not mean that there is a specific crime gene - there are many other factors such as psychological, social, and environmental factors.
What are arousal theories of crime?
Arousal theory argues that some people respond differently to different levels of stimulation.
Some people require abnormally high levels of stimulation for 'normal' brain functioning.
This research has been linked to propensity for drug use or abuse, particularly in the case of neurotransmitter abnormalities.
STATUS FRUSTRATION - definition and which theory it is most closely related to?
Status frustration = A concept developed by Albert Cohen in Delinquent Boys (1956), and used to explain working-class male delinquency as being a REACTION TOWARDS MIDDLE-CLASS VALUES of success, as embodied in the school. Delinquent boys experience status frustration and INVERT MIDDLE-CLASS VALUES to create a delinquent subculture.
Related to SUB-CULTURAL THEORIES.
Cohen's argument forms part of the ANOMIE and STRAIN THEORY traditions of delinquency and sub-cultural analysis.
DIFFERENTIAL OPPORTUNITY (Definition)
Cloward and Ohlin called this concept "differential opportunity," where all members of society share similar cultural goals and values (i.e. financial success, prestige, etc.), but are divided by means of legitimate opportunity.
Differential opportunity = a theory that suggests that one's socio-economic environment serves to predetermine their likelihood of achieving financial success through legitimate or illegitimate means.
AGE CRIME CURVE (Definition)
The assumption that offending is most prevalent during mid to late adolescence.
The incidence of crime increases with age until individuals reach about 16 to 20.
The incidence of crime then decreases with age in adulthood. This can vary across offences.
DIFFERENTIAL ENFORCEMENT - definition and what group of theories is it mostly closely related to?
Differential Enforcement = the idea that "the law is deferentially applied, benefiting those who hold economic and social power and penalizing the powerless."
Related Theory GROUP: Societal Reaction Theories
Related Theory (Specific) : Labelling Theory
Also CRITICAL CRIMINOLOGY.
DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION - definition and what group of theories is it mostly closely related to?
The final part of the Labelling Process within LABELLING THEORY.
ACCEPTANCE of Labels:
People begin to see themselves as outsiders/deviants.
Locked into criminal careers
Related Theory GROUP: Societal Reaction Theories
NEUTRALISATION TECHNIQUES - what are they and what theory does it relate to?
Matza and Sykes proposed that criminals learn to effectively "neutralize" conventional values in several ways (in order to justify their actions).
Allows offenders to drift between normative and subterranean values.
1.Denial of RESPONSIBILITY -
Other forces cause deviants to act the way they do
2.Denial of INJURY -
No big deal, no one got hurt
3.Denial of VICTIM -
It was the victims fault, or there was no "real" victim
4.Condemnation of CONDEMNERS -
The real deviant is "the man"
5.Appeal to HIGHER LOYALTIES
Related Theory GROUP: Social Process Theories
Related Theory (Specific) : Social Learning Theory
SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION (SCP) - what is it and what theory does it relate to?
Situational crime prevention (SCP) seeks to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur.
It is generally designed so that individual offenders do not have to be identified for the measures to be successful.
Measures for blocking crime opportunities:
1. increasing effort
2. increasing risk
3. reducing reward
4. reducing provocation, and;
5. removing excuses.
Related Theory (Specific) : Rational Choice Theory
RETRIBUTION - definition and what is the key difference between it and the other punishment justifications.
Retribution = Aims to RESTORE social inequity that has occurred.
Retribution is backwards looking/justifies punishment on the basis of what has ALREADY OCCURRED.
"An eye for an eye"
KEY DIFFERENCE =
other forms of punishment are forward looking and ATTEMPT TO CHANGE some future situation. Retribution does not.
3. Deterrence, and;
LATENT TRAIT - definition and what theory or group of theories does this relate to?
A latent trait is the degree/likelihood of offending, over the life-course.
The trait does't change over the life-course, but opportunity structures do.
Traits are personal attributes which are established early in life and remains stable over time.
Examples of latent traits which have been suggested to be involved in the propensity to commit crime are:
3. genetic abnormalities, and;
4. environmental influences on the brain.
Theorists = Hirschi & Gottfredson.
Related Theory (Specific) : Developmental Theory
ATAVIST - definition, background, theorist and model/etiology of crime.
Lombroso's theory of Atavism = criminals have physically distinct traits as compared with non-criminals. Such traits reflected lesser evolved human beings, and therefore their actions were criminal as they were less evolved and less likely to 'fit into' modern societal norms and values.
IN A NUTSHELL: idea that criminals were evolutionary throwbacks to an earlier stage of evolution.
Lombroso's theories were born out of the ages of enlightenment and POSITIVISM. He is often called the father of modern criminology.
Theorists = Lombroso
Linked to the MEDICAL/PATHOLOGICAL MODEL/ETIOLOGY of crime.
Theory: Biological Determinism
Biological Determination = argues that human behaviour is determined by biological factors, thus all behaviour, including criminality, can be explained biologically (genetics, etc.).
** This theory does not account for free will or for the ability of humans to change.
Related Theory: Developmental Theory
ANOMIE - definition, theorist, related theory/social paradigm.
A state of 'NORMLESSNESS' leading to the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community.
Theorists = Emile Durkheim/Robert Merton
Related Theory/Social Paradigm = Functionalism
Durkheim believed Anomie results from the conflict between socially acceptable norms/values and the norms of the competing groups.
Strain/separation between cultural goals and legitimate opportunity.
The greater the degree of separation, the greater the degree of Anomie.
Explain the difference between PRIMARY & SECONDARY DEVIANCE.
Which theory does this relate to?
(criminal acts )
a norm violation or crime with little or no long-term influence on the violator; the experience of the violator is related to the act itself.
• "I do this thing for its effects."
• I use drugs because they make me feel good.
a norm violation or crime that comes to the attention of significant others/social control agents, who apply a negative label with long-term consequences for the violator's self-identity and social interactions.
• "I do this thing because I am this way."
•I use drugs because I am an addict.
Related Theory: Labelling Theory
Define the 4 modalities of Sutherland's DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION theory.
Frequency, duration, priority (lawful and delinquent behaviour developed in early childhood may persist throughout life, the earlier in life one hears the definitions the more likely they are to persist), and intensity (prestige of the source of criminal pattern and with emotional reactions related to the associations/definitions).
Explain DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
Criminal and deviant behaviour (like all behaviour) is learned. Crime and deviance are not inherited, nor can they simply be explained as a result of social structures.
* Learning is a byproduct of social interaction.
* Principle learning occurs in intimate groups.
* Deviant behaviour includes learned techniques and motives.
Deviance is a result of an excess of definitions favourable to violation of law. In relation to these factors.
Sutherland argued that the stronger the frequency, duration, priority, and intensity of such social interactions, the higher the likelihood that these interactions would result in emotional or intimate bonds with others who engage in criminal behaviour, and the more likely it would be that an individual would likewise engage in such behaviour.
Theorists: Sutherland and Cressy (1947)
Related Theory: Social Interractionism
Explain DIFFERENTIAL IDENTIFICATION
Glaser has suggested that in modern society, "association" may be defined in a wide number of ways, including identification with people or groups that one has little direct contact with, but is influential just the same.
The ubiquity and influence of mass media, for example, allows us to identify with characters, fashions, and trends in an "intimate" fashion.
The fact that many people today spend more time online, watching television, or interacting with mass media than they do with friends and family suggests that such "associations" are becoming increasingly discursive - leading to the question of the actual influence of media as an agent of socialization.
Related Theory: ??
Explain the impact that Daly's FEMINIST PATHWAYS research has informed criminology.
Daly's Feminist pathways research (1992) influenced theoretical development by challenging the gender neutrality of mainstream explanations for offending and victimization. Also influenced data collection, analytic methods, and gender-responsive policies and practices regarding crime.
Daly identified 5 pathways to crime:
1. Harmed-and-Harming Women
2. Battered Women
3. Street Woman
4. Drug connected Women
What does New Left Realism and New Right Realism say is the best way to reduce crime?
explain the key differences between NLR and NRR.
Focus on inequalities created by capitalist society (influenced by Marx).
NLR ways to reduce/address crime:
* Practical measures such as improved policing
which gains confidence of community
* Long-term change for a more equal society
therefore mitigating many causes of crime
* Focus on victimology/helping minorities
improve their lives
* Address deeper structural causes of crime
Theorists: Lea & Young
Focus on 'getting tough on crime' / relies on biological and social explanations of crime.
* Underclass subscribe to deviant values
* Welfare State responsible for emergence of
* Borrows from rational choice theory
(offender weighs up risk vs reward)
TRAVIS HIRSCHI (the 4 controls)
1. Attachment (family & relationship)
2. Commitment (ppl may have much to lose)
3. Involvement (ppl engaged in communities may lose respect)
4. Belief (ppl brought up to respect rules, beliefs & others)
NRR ways to reduce/address crime:
Theorists: Murray, Clarke, HIRSCHI
What is Correctionalism?
The process of correctionalism = Mainstream and even liberal criminology (i.e. positivist criminology) is "designed to unmask the weak and powerless members of society so they can be better dealt with by the legal system.
What is a Concentric Zone?
Attempts to explain urban social structures.
Concentric ring model depicts urban land usage in concentric rings: the Central Business District (CBD) is in the middle, and the city expanded in rings with different land uses.
The zones identified are:
1. center with the CBD,
2. transition zone of mixed residential and commercial uses or the zone of transition,
3. Working class residential homes (inner suburbs), in later decades called inner city or zone of independent working men's home,
4. Better quality middle-class homes (outer suburbs) or zone of better housing,
5. Commuter zone.
Theorist: Ernest Burgess
(Associated with Social Disorganisation Theory)
What are TURNING or TRANSITION points?
(Theories = Samson)
Turning points refer to particular events or experiences that result in changes in (criminal) trajectory over the long-term.
Understanding turning points may be particularly valuable in providing insight into the complicated underlying processes involved in long-term changes in crime/deviance and reveal why, for instance, the same life event (e.g., obtaining employment, becoming a parent) constitutes a turning point leading to a marked increase in deviance for some, but not for others
What does SOCIAL DISORGANISATION refer to?
(Also theorists and related school of thought).
A person's residential location is more significant than the person's characteristics when predicting criminal activity
Developed by the Chicago School & related to ecological theories.
Shaw and McKay discovered crime is concentrated in particular areas of the city.
Theorists: Burgess, Sutherland, Shaw, McKay
Howard Becker is primarily associated with which theory? Briefly explain this theory.
What are Becker's main assumptions in relation to this theory?
The view of deviance according to which being labeled as a "deviant" leads a person to engage in deviant behavior.
Howard Becker's work (1960s)
Explains WHY people's behaviour clashes with social norms.
Social groups create deviance by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders.
From this point of view, deviance is not a quality of the act a person commits, but rather a consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an 'offender.'
The deviant is the one to whom the label has been applied; deviant behaviour is just behaviour that people label as deviant.
Edwin Lemert is primarily associated with which theory? Briefly explain this theory.
What are Lemert's main assumptions in relation to this theory?
A symbolic interactionist approach to deviance, focussing on the way in which negative labels are applied and the consequences of the labeling process.
Edwin Lemert's work:
Made a distinction between primary deviance and secondary deviance.
Rule-breaking behavior that is carried out by people who see themselves and are seen by others as basically conformist.
When a negative label is applied publicly and powerfully that it becomes part of that individual's identity.
E.g. Having been processed by the juvenile justice system and labeled a delinquent, the individual takes on this label as a key aspect of his/her identity and behaves accordingly.
The role of social control as contributing to deviant behaviour is an idea linked to which specific theory?
Labelling theory is linked to which of the 3 social paradigms?
In psychological and/or biological theories of crime - Trait theories do not adequately account for why crime tends to be patterned along predictable social structures such as poverty. TRUE or FALSE
According to Cesare Lombroso, serious crime could be largely explained through the distinctive physiological features of offenders, which he termed__________.
According to the functionalist perspective in sociology, increases in crime rates might occur because of:
a decrease in social cohesion and shared values.
According to the "age crime curve," at which point do most offenders begin to "age out" of serious offending?
By their middle 20s
Eugenics is best described as a form of _________ in terms of how it explained crime and deviance in the early 20th century.
Law and criminal justice during the medieval period was heavily influenced by what?
One problem with the "formal/legal" definition of crime is what?
It may fail to take into account social harms not defined as criminal by the state.
Positivism within criminology attempts to uncover the reasons for criminal behaviour through what?
The use of the scientific method.
Sociologists utilising the ________ perspective focus on the way in which people act toward, make sense of, respond to, and influence one another.
The classical school of criminology provides a substantial foundation for part of our understanding of crime and responses to offending. The classical school supports which of the following:
a. Punishment that is based on deterring the criminal act
b. Criminals have free will and make a reasoned choice
c. Crime is best reduced through certain, swift, and
appropriately severe punishments
d. All of the above
d. All of the above
The concepts of consensus and social cohesion are central to the ________ paradigm/school of thought within sociology?
The social conflict paradigm in sociology is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of _______ that generates _______ and _______.
inequality, conflict, change.
The social contract is central to which theoretical approach in criminology?
Rational Choice Theory is most closely associated with what school of Criminology?
One benefit of the development of self-report surveys in the mid 20th century was sociologists found out that many types of crimes were more broadly distributed along socio-economic strata than previously thought.
TRUE or FALSE?
Which social "logic" of punishment is most directly related to the Classical School of Criminology and Rational Choice Theory?
According to the sociological perspective, how crime is defined varies by time, place, and context within and between cultures.
TRUE or FALSE?
Official crime data is rarely skewed by differences in policing styles and practices.
TRUE or FALSE?
Explain what is meant by the term "positivism."
What is unique about this approach to the study of crime compared to other approaches?
Positivism refers to methods/methodologies that rely on scientific observation/inquiry to explain crime.
Positivism looks at any factors (biological, psychological, social, or environmental) that may be observed and empirically verified.
According to a functionalist perspective, what are "social structures"? Name at least four of the 'big five' social structures present in all societies according to functionalists?
According to the functionalist perspective, social structures refer to the various interrelated parts that contribute to a cohesive society. These parts or institutions serve important functions.
Examples of these institutions/structures include Politics, Education, Religion, Family and Economy. If just one of these institutions don't function properly, it can impact on the others and potentially lead to deviance and chaos.
In New Left Realism (NLR) & New Right Realism (NRR), what does the term 'realism' refer to?
Translating research about crime into realistic approaches.
Neither NLR or NRR are idealistic about crime origins. Focussed instead on how to realistically reduce crime.
What are the New Left Realism (NLR) & New Right Realism (NRR) assumptions about crime?
Crime is a result of social inequality or relative deprivation.
Presence of sub-cultures increase likelihood of crime.
Crime is a result of failing social institutions that don't hold individuals personally responsible.
Punishments are not harsh enough to effectively deter people from crime.
The term 'Symbolic Interactionism' was coined by Herbert Blumer in 1969.
TRUE or FALSE?
Which theorist surmised that serious criminal activity was probably an inherited trait? (And is also associated atavistic theory)?
Lombroso's work is classified as a form of biological determinism.
In Classical Criminology, who said the following:
"Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. . . . They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think"
Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1842)
In terms of SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL or POSITIVIST EXPLANATION, what are the four social logics of punishment?
3. Deterrence, and;
What is the SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL or POSITIVIST theorist Raphael Garafolo (1851-1934) mainly remembered for?
He set forth foundation for which psychologists can begin to think about psychological deficiencies as explaining deviance.
What is Sigmund Freud's (1856-1939) Theory of personality about? Name the 3 main components.
Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. His theory of personality suggests that:
• the id (the location of the basic drives),
• the ego (the reality principle), and;
• the superego (the conscience or
internalized social control)
What is the main criticisms of Trait based theories?
Trait theories tend to individualize behaviour.
The "Chicago School"/Social disorganization theory (SDT) argues that crime is fundamentally a social phenomena, and not a result of individual pathology, sin, etc.
TRUE or FALSE?
What does the term 'Social ecology' refer to?
The study of the social and behavioral consequences of the interaction between human beings and their environment.
Briefly explain Concentric Zone Theory.
Chicago School researchers found that, while crime rates varied over time throughout the zones, they were stable relative to one another, and that transition zones continually evidenced the highest rates of crime.
Shaw and McKay (Social Disorganisation theorists) deduced that three variables were connected to consistent patterns of juvenile arrest rates. What are they?
1. Residential instability.
2. Economic disadvantage.
3. Ethnic heterogeneity.
It was the characteristics of the neighborhoods in the zone of transition, not of the people living there, which most affected crime. The people and ethnicities changed, but the crime rates did not.
Which theory is Ernest Burgess most frequently associated with?
Social Disorganisation Theory
Who argued that we can think of crime as a social fact, for the reason that is has useful and necessary social functions?
Emile Durkheim (father of functionalism)
Which social structural theorist is associated with the term 'status frustration'?
Which two theorists coined the term "differential opportunity"? What does this term mean?
Cloward and Ohlin.
where all members of society share similar cultural goals and values (i.e. financial success, prestige, etc.), but are divided by means of legitimate opportunity.
In Robert Agnew's general strain theory, what else (other than one's Socio-economic status) can result in strain?
Blockage of money/status/respect/autonomy may result in strain.
a. The LOSS of POSITIVE stimuli
i. Agnew argues that things such as the death of a loved one, loss of a job, or victimization can increase strain.
b. The PRESENTATION of NEGATIVE stimuli.
i. Pain avoidance from things such as abuse and neglect, also negative relationships with peers, etc. Hoffman and Miller (1998), for example, found that things such as parental unemployment increase likelihood of delinquency).
List some criticisms of social structural and strain theories.
• Cannot predict or explain why two people of the same strata may differ substantially in terms of criminal behaviour
• Doesn't explain why people choose to commit one crime over another
• Fails to explain why most people who commit crimes of all socio-economic strata eventually age out (i.e. Why does "strain" lessen with age?)
• Merton's anomie theory in particular has been criticized for his normative assumption of "cultural goals"
• Assumes all people share the same aspirations of the "american dream"
• Does not consider why do people who are relatively well-off or who have little "strain" commit crimes
E.G. How does strain theory explain the large increase in white, middle class delinquency throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s?
Social Process theories cover which 3 theory areas?
1. Social control theories
2. Social Learning theories
3. Social Reaction theories
What are Social Process theories mainly about?
Based on the processes of socialisation
• The interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society.
• Social process theories focus more on the social construction of meaning between individuals and their socializing factors.
Which theory group is Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904) mostly associated with?
Social Learning Theories
Gabriel Tarde proposed that individuals learn deviance from others.
TRUE or FALSE?
In differential association theory, who believed crime to be a function of a learning process that could affect any individual in any culture?
Which theorists proposed that criminals learn to effectively "neutralize" conventional values?
Matza and Sykes
Within Social Control Theory, which theorist is associated with Social Bond Theory?
Hirschi argues that social attachment is only beneficial if attachments are with individuals who do not engage in in deviant behaviour.
TRUE or FALSE
Hirschi argues that any form of social attachment is beneficial, even attachment to deviant peers and parents (Siegel 2004: 231).
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