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Bio Exam 3 Review - Meiosis (Class 13)
Terms in this set (28)
a unit of heredity
the address of a gene
a different version of a gene
(2n) a cell containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
(n) a cell with a single set of unpaired chromosomes
when homologous chromosomes come together
two sets of the same type of chromosomes that may have different alleles (one set of chromosomes from mom, one set of chromosomes from dad)
the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring; happens in Prophase I
how chromosomes line up in one cell is not related to how they line up in another cell; happens in Anaphase I
abnormal amount of chromosomes in a cell
gamete with an extra chromosome; 3 chromosomes in a cell
gamete missing a chromosome; 1 chromosome in a cell
when chromosomes or chromatids separate
when chromosomes or chromatids fail to separate
total number of genetic characteristics in the gene makeup of a species
1. the tendency of individual genetic characteristics in a population to vary from one another.
2. the potential of a genotype to change or deviate when exposed to environmental or genetic factors
Why is meiosis necessary for sexual reproduction?
it turns diploid cells (one set of chromosomes from each parent) into haploid cells (one set of unique chromosomes for the offspring)
What are the two purposes of meiosis?
1. turns diploid cells into haploid cells
2. ensures genetic diversity
What are the two mechanisms of genetic variability?
1. crossing over
2. independent assortment
What are the steps of meiosis I and meiosis II in order?
1. prophase I
2. metaphase I
3. anaphase I
4. telophase I
5. prophase II
6. metaphase II
7. anaphase II
8. telophase II
What happens in each phase of meiosis I?
1. Prophase I: late centrosomes reach the poles; spindle microtubules attach to kinetochores on homologous pairs
2. Metaphase I: homologous pairs line up along metaphase plate
3. Anaphase I: homologous pairs separate
4. Telophase I: homologous chromosomes reach poles
What happens in each phase of meiosis II?
1. Prophase II: spindles attach
2. Metaphase II: chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
3. Anaphase II: chromatids separate
4. Telophase II: chromatids reach poles
What mistakes can happen in meiosis?
Non-Disjunction can occur
- meiosis I: all gametes affected
- meiosis II: half gametes affected
What are the consequences of mistakes in meiosis?
aneuploidy, trisomy, monosomy
What is the use of meiosis?
reproductive (gametes), genetic variability
In what phase of meiosis does the cell change from being diploid to haploid?
In what phase of meiosis does crossing over occur?
In what phase of meiosis does independent assortment occur?
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