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Harmful effects of radiation on human tissue are?


How much lead should the apron have?


What is the correct vertical angulation used when taking a bitewing x-ray?

+10 degrees

What do full mouth x-rays consist of?

Always has periapical and bitewing films

What needs to happen when exposing a full mouth set of radiographs?

The exposure button should be covered with a plastic barrier

What Radiographic tech. records accurate images of crowns, roots, and supporting structures of a selected area of the oral cavity?

Periapical films

#1 film should be used to x-ray what areas?

Incisors and cuspid

What is the sequence for developing and processing manual processing?

develop, rinse, fix, and wash

What chemical in fixer clears unexposed halide crystals?

ammonium thiosulfate

Electrons from the cathode and anode produce how much energy in the collision?


what landmarks do you look for if the patient has no teeth?

Tuberosity and near the outer corner of the eye

Most likely cause of black spots on a bitewing x-ray?

Developer splash

How does radiolucent look on an x-ray


What restorative material appears radiopaque on a radiograph?

amalgam and gold crowns

what will too much vertical angulation cause?


what is the use for occlusal x-rays?

locate foreign bodies

what do intensifying screens do?

contain phosphors that emit blue or green light

while taking a panoramic extra oral x-ray where should the assistant instruct the patient to place tounge?

on roof of the mouth

which of the following is not classified as a developmental dental abnormality?

periapical abscess

What do filters do in the x-ray beam?

Reduce patient radiation dose and remove the long waves

what is the recommended collimation of the radiation beam at the patients skin surface?


what does ALARA concept stand for?

as low as reasonably possible

what are examples of personnel monitoring devices?

film badge, pocket dosimeter, and film ring

The transfer of energy as it passes through matter is called?


what is it called when a lead disc is used for the elimination of the peripheral portion of the x-ray beam?>


in dental radiography, what infection control procedures are included?

sterilization and disinfection

what does immersing the contaminated exposed film packet in a disinfecting solution do?

destroys film

where in the x-ray head does thermionic emission take place?

tungsten filament

What is the primary diagnostic use of bitewing radiograph?

check for interproximal decay and crestal bone level

what causes a herringbone pattern across a film with low density?

the film packet placed backwards

what determines the speed of the film?

the size of the halide crystals

what does the term radiographic density describe?

degree of darkness or blackness of film

a double exposure occurs when

the same film is exposed to radiation twice

which term describes the loss of electrons from a substance?


which of the following materials is most resistant to the penetration of ionizing radiation?


which of the following appears radiolucent on a radiograph?

dental pulp

what causes light films?

under developing, underexposure ,not enough mA or KV

which of the following is a helpful hint for mounting a full- mouth set of radiographs?

The overall appearance of the radiographic survey will hace an upward curve like a smile

A charged coupling device (CCD) is primarily made of what substance?


if a patient is positioned in a panoramic unit with his or her chin too low,which of the following images might be seen on the resultant radiograph?

exaggerated curve of spee

what technique is best when exposing intraoral films prior to placing an implant?

panoramic technique

Film density?

Overall darkness or blackness of a film

Film speed?

the sensitivity of the emulsion on the film


changes density and contrast

Latent image

invisible image on the x-ray film after exposure but before processing


affects density

Maximum permissible dose MPD

( N-18) x 0.05 SV/year

Ionization is?

When an electron is removed from the orbital shell of the electronically stable atom

who discovered x-ray and what year?

Wilhelm Roentgen and in Nov. 1895

Who made the first dental radiograph?

Otto Walkhoff

who performed the first dental radiograph on a live patient?

C. Edmund Kells

Who invented the x ray machine and what year?

Victor Radiograph in 1923

Electromagnetic radiation is?

Visible light, radar, radio, tv waves, as well asx-rays

Particulate radiation is?

Postively charged alpha and negatively beta

Characteristic of x-ray beams?

Invisible and undetectable by sense, no mass, no charge, travel at speed of light, travel in short and high frequency waves, travel in straight line & can be deflected or scattered, absorbed by matter, causes ionization, can cause certain substance to fluoresce, can produce image on photographic film, cause changes in living cells

Primary Radiation

Useful beam

Secondary radiation

Formed after primary beams comes in contact with matter and its not useful

Scattered radiation

It occurs when an x-ray bean has been deflected from its path by interaction with matter

What does the collimator do?

Helps reduce scatter radiation and limits size of the primary beam

What is the heart of the x- ray generating system?

X-ray tube

What regulates Milliamperage and Kilo voltage peak?

The selector button

What does the aluminum filter remove?

Harmful low energy, long-wavelength sand least penetrating x-rays frin the beam

What do impulses affect?

Density (the lower the impulse or time the lower the density)

Inverse square law is?

The intensity of the radiation become weaker as it spreads out over a larger area

What is exposure measured in?

Roentgen (R)

What is acute radiation exposure?

When a large does of radiation is absorbed in a short period of time

Chronic radiation is?

Is absorbed in a short period of time.

How far must you stand from the x-ray unit during exposure?

6 ft.

Where is intraoral film placed?

It is used inside the mouth and used to examine the teeth and supporting structures

Extraoral film is placed?

it is placed outside of the mouth and used to examine the large areas of the head and jaw

Intraoral has three types of projections called?

bitewing , peariapical , and occlusal

Extral oral film has 2 projections called?

Panoramic and Cephalometric

What are the two types of intraoral x-ray techniques?

paralleling and bisecting

What are the steps in manual film processing?

Developer, rinse, fixer, wash, dry/mount

What does using an XCP help to avoid?

Excessive angulation

When PID is properly aligned what will you avoid?

Cone cutting

If you have two films together what can happen?

You can have double image

What will happen if you place the white side of film away from the PID?

you will get the Herringbone pattern

What happened if your film is black?

Film got exposed to light

Fogged film occurs when?

The temperature is chaged and the age of the solution.

If streaks show up on film what happened?

YOur rollers need to be cleaned in the automatic processor

What is the Alveolar bone?

Its the bone the teeth go into

What is the fastest film speed?

F- speed film

What is the nutrient canal?

It is the pulp tissue

How many roots do the Mandibular molars have?

2 roots

How many roots do the maxillary molars have?

3 roots

The dot on the film is called?

Labial mounting

What is your check bone called?


What is the preferred holder for film?


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