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Terms in this set (227)
Hannah believes that each individual person has a unique perspective and experience and that people can consciously choose their goals to make their lives as rewarding and fulfilling as possible. If she were to become interested in psychology, it is likely that she would be drawn to the __________ perspective.
structuralism and functionalism
The two schools of thought that dominated psychology in its earliest years were:
Nature is to the ________ perspective as nurture is to the ________ perspective.
Lyn is studying psychology because she is particularly interested in how people can cope with and adapt to modern work environments. Her focus on how the mind helps us to adapt to the world is reminiscent of which early school of psychology?
the nature-nurture controversy
The argument over whether human behaviour is learned or biologically rooted is called:
Purely out of curiosity, your friend Tipene has volunteered to take part in a psychology experiment he saw advertised on a university noticeboard He has never taken any psychology courses, but he has been told the experiment will involve memorising lists of nonsense words in between trying to solve Sudoku puzzles. You explain to him that it is most likely that the lecturer conducting the experiment is a _________ psychologist.
the cognitive revolution in psychology
At a conference held in 1956 Noam Chomsky, George Miller, and Herbert Simon presented papers on language, memory, and problem-solving. This event sparked:
Glenn and Kirsten notice how their eight month old son Riley gets excited and tries to clap whenever he sees his highchair brought out. They realise that he has learnt to associate the highchair with getting fed. Their observations are typical of those made by psychologists working within the __________ perspective.
actions of humans and animals follow physical laws.
Proponents of determinism in psychology believe that:
the implication that people are not masters of their own destinies
What do behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory have in common?
a tentative belief about the relationship between two or more variables.
A hypothesis is best characterised as:
attention from the teacher.
As part of an in-class study, students were divided into two groups. Students in one group were ignored when they talked without raising their hands. Students in the other group were attended to in the teacher's usual manner. The independent variable in this experiment was:
If you wanted to study someone with a rare disorder such as photophobia (the fear of light), your BEST research option would be a(an):
external validity .
The results of an experiment I conducted are found to be highly applicable to the way people behave in the real world. I can conclude that my experiment is high in:
Income and years of education are _____ correlated, while grades achieved at school and the number of hours of television watched per day are probably _____ correlated.
In a survey of student conformity, researchers selected a group of university students who appeared to represent the characteristics of students from the entire university campus. The selected group served as the _____ of the university _____.
Your research class conducted an experiment on caffeine-induced stress in which neither the class researchers nor the participants in the experiment knew who did and did not receive caffeine until after the study was completed. This research design is called a(n):
you were in the control group.
In a study to test the effects of alcohol on driving, you were in a group of participants that received no alcohol. This means that:
manipulate variables one at a time and observe the effects of each.
Experiments provide the cleanest findings of any method of psychological research because experimenters can:
context of discovery; context of justification
Your lecturer says that understanding psychological phenomena often starts with curious observations that encourage researchers to make more observations, systematically. Only then, she argues, do psychologists come up with a tentative theory to explain the phenomenon and then go about testing hypotheses from the theory. You don't quite know what she is talking about until you read in your textbook about the ____________ and the _____________ .
The major function of the ___________ is to maintain consciousness, regulate arousal levels and moderate the activity of neurons throughout the central nervous system.
his 'right hand doesn't know what his left hand is doing'.
In describing the effects of a split-brain operation, one could say that:
The amygdala is involved with:
Jacinta works as a receptionist at a busy multi-national company and directs incoming calls from all over the world to appropriate departments for processing. Her job can be compared to the job of the _____ in your brain.
calming your body down and maintaining the body's energy resources.
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for:
You have just touched a hot cup of coffee. Your hand immediately and reflexively pulls away without you thinking about it. This action was controlled by your:
Information is sent to the brain via the sensory or _____ neurons whereas information is sent to the muscles and glands of the body via motor or _____.
feel sensations from the left side of his body.
If your neighbour was abducted by aliens and they removed his right parietal lobe, he would be unable to:
extreme personality changes provide evidence for a connection between the frontal lobes and personality.
The case of Phineas Gage is important because his:
A lot of the staggering and slurred speech that occurs after consuming alcohol is due to the ____________ being affected.
are assumed superior and normal.
Aboriginal people live in a land where the norms and values of the dominant culture:
Tony spent most of his life growing up in Mexico, but has spent the past few years in Australia. He has had several appointments with Dr Fielding, but he arrives late on several occasions, stating that he was with his family. He tends to be late submitting reports at work and only loosely follows the duty roster as scheduled. These characteristics are typically consistent with:
The approach to reducing prejudice by increasing contact between people from different groups is known as:
understand the past.
It is important to recognise that to put the present circumstances in Australia into context, it is necessary to:
Luis has a strong allegiance to his cultural heritage, identifying with members of the Portuguese community in Australia, and spending time at the community club. He embraces the language and, during the World Cup, proudly wears the Portuguese colours. Luis appears to have a strong sense of:
David has grown up learning, over time, about the important cultural norms and values of the society in which he lives. He has learnt how to behave in different social settings, he knows the difference between what is considered "right" and "wrong", and even understands the subtleties of culturally appropriate humour. David appears to have undergone the process of:
Ms H is talking with her friends and repeatedly mentioning "the dreaded plague of foreigners who keep trying to bust into the country rather than staying with their own kind". Ms H's thinking is most associated with:
individualism and universality.
The two fundamental assumptions in psychology that particularly exclude indigenous people and realities, are:
Ten days in a row, Aaron felt a static electric shock when he kissed his wife on the living room carpet. Now he feels mildly anxious whenever he approaches his wife to kiss her. In classical conditioning, his wife was a(n) _____ stimulus ten days ago, and has now become a(n) _____stimulus.
Confiscating the cars of people who use public roads for burn-outs, is an attempt at:
taste with nausea.
Garcia and Koelling examined the impact of biological constraints on learning in rats exposed to shock or x-rays. Rats learned to associate:
conditioned taste aversion.
You have just eaten a Thai takeaway satay and then one hour later started to feel nauseous and vomit. Despite learning that you had probably contracted a stomach bug from a friend a few days, earlier you still cannot stand the idea of eating satay again. This is an example of:
Negative reinforcement ______ rate of a response; punishment ______ the rate of a response.
A music teacher is working on a new piece with a student. At first, the teacher praises the student for playing correct notes. After the student has begun to play most of the notes correctly, the teacher only praises the student when she plays the notes with proper interpretation. This is an example of:
Ava extinguished her fear of spiders several months ago, but then she suddenly felt her heart pounding when she saw a small spider on her desk. This is an example of:
Every time you order a chicken dinner from KFC, you get a card stamped. After you buy ten dinners, you get one for free. KFC has you on what time of reinforcement schedule?
Taking paracetamol to relieve a headache is an example of:
Pavlov's dog learnt to respond to a particular tone of bell, this is an example of:
the unconditioned stimulus
The sound of a bell predicts a puff of air, which elicits an eye blink. What is the puff of air?
It is easier to condition Rats to associate water with naseau, rather than with a bright buzzer. Garcia explained the reason behind this as:
The assumed inferiority of a particular group:
Giving up your culture and embracing host culture:
Maintaining your culture and being isolated from or failing to relate to host culture:
The way two or more variables interact:
Sympathetic nervous system
As you prepare to be called up to deliver your speech, your heart is racing and your mouth is dry- which part of your nervous system is responsible for these physical responses?
prefrontal cortex (higher order cognitive abilities)
When you are focusing your attention on a lecture and trying to ignore the noise from the people talking behind you, which part of the brain is crucial?
Which hemisphere of the brain dominates: language, logic and complex motor behaviour?
Which hemisphere of the brain dominates expressive and creative tasks, forming visual maps of the environment and facial recognition ?
Sandra has difficulty understanding spoken language but is able to produce sounds, phrases, and word sequences. Which language disorder does Sandra have?
Which part of the left frontal lobe is linked to the language disorder of broken speech production?
Damage to this part of the brain is linked to Parkinson disease.
Fighting, feeding, fleeing and ****ing, relates to which part of the brain?
The psychometric approach to intelligence:
tries to identify groups of items in a test that correlate highly with one another in order to discover underlying skills or abilities
Heritability estimates can be high while, at the same time, individuals' IQs can be improved significantly relative to their parents
A robust debate has begun on the Letters page of your local newspapers over the benefit of the Government spending more on education. One writer argues that since hundreds of studies have found high heritability for intelligence, then it is a waste of taxpayers' money to keep increasing education spending in the hope that children of low IQ parents will be more successful. What conceptual mistake is this correspondent making in her argument?
while fluid intelligence tends to decrease, crystallised intelligence tends to increase
Over the life span, general intelligence remains pretty stable due to the fact that:
success in school
Intelligence tests are valid in the sense that they correlate highly with:
are useful predictors of academic success, but should be considered in the appropriate environmental and cultural context.
Georgia sits an intelligence test (the WAIS-IV) and notices that there are two broad kinds of problems she is being asked to solve. If she has correctly identified the two forms of subtests in the test, she has distinguished between the _________ and __________subtests.
Analytical and practical
Stephen doesn't have much time for what he calls 'Ivory Tower' thinking in universities because he argues that it is no use when dealing with the everyday problems that real people face. Stephen, perhaps without realising it, is distinguishing between which two facets of intelligence in Sternberg's theory of intelligence?
the processes that underlie intelligent behaviour
The information-processing approach focuses on:
According to the normal distribution of IQ scores, what percentage of the test takers will get scores between 85 and 115?
Sir Francis Galton
Who believed intelligence was (largely) hereditary and that according to principles of natural selection, the most intelligent people should be the most influential in society even if their environment was not ideal; he thought that the most intelligent people were the most evolved.
I have the desire to be a truly good friend, a wonderful husband and father, and the best son and brother I can be. I also want to be an outstanding teacher and researcher. In terms of Rogers' theory, this refers to my:
A young boy who turns his feelings of competition with his father or brother into a desire to excel in competitive sports or succeed in business when he is older, may be employing:
In Freud's structural model, to counterbalance the "untamed passions" of the ______, the ______ acts as a conscience and source of ideals.
an actualising tendency
Stewart is listening to a motivational speaker. The speaker appears filled with energy, shouting, "Our most basic motivation is to find who we really are and express ourselves to the world! So, do what you need to do to be all that you can be!" The words of the motivational speaker emphasises the concept that Rogers describes as:
high on neuroticism
Radford is self-conscious, insecure, impulsive, and moody; According to the Five-Factor model, it is likely that Radford scores:
You would rather have fun with your new romantic interest than study for your psychology exam. You know you will do poorly on the exam if you don't study, but tell yourself that having fun will help you relax for the exam. This is an example of the defence mechanism called:
Laura, a twenty-six-year-old woman, is extremely clingy and dependent; she demonstrates an exaggerated need for approval, nurturance and love. Freud would suggest that Laura developed her fixation during what stage of her development?
Samsara is aloof and self-contained. She prefers to read and work on her computer rather than engage in camping or other outdoor activities. She feels emotions deeply, but rarely displays them. Her thoughts are complex and focused on philosophical questions rather than every-day practicalities. This is a description of Samsara's:
Garner is imaginative, unconventional, curious, and artistic; Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. According to the Five-Factor model of personality, it is likely that Garner will score high on _____ and Brandy will score low on the same trait.
ambivalent attachment style.
According to Mary Ainsworth, a child who responds to his/her mother's absence and return by ignoring her or exhibiting anger and rejection, while also indicating a clear desire to be close to her, is exhibiting a(n):
Eighteen-year-old Leila has given her grandfather a new 'brain training' computer game that allows him to complete and track scores on different cognitive skills activities. Leila notices that on some timed tasks, where her grandfather must respond quickly by 'clicking the mouse', his scores are noticeably poorer than hers. This age related difference most likely reflects _____ in her grandfather.
When six-month old Jessica learns that mommy continues to exist even when she is quietly resting in another room, Jessica has developed:
On an exam, John did better than Sue did, and Sue did better than Fred did. It is obvious to you that John did better than Fred. You performed:
A team of researchers is interested in studying the development of television-watching and aggressive behaviour in pre-schoolers. They select a group of 3 year olds, 4 year olds, and 5 year olds, and examine both their TV watching and level of aggressiveness after 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years of time. This type of study is best described as a:
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Chelsea is a toddler who has authoritarian parents. Her parents restrict her ability to make her own choices and are critical of her as she tries new things. As a result, Chelsea may have initial difficulty with the developmental task of:
Studies have found that the most independent, inquisitive, academically competent, and sociable children usually have what type of parents?
Lack of conservation
At lunch, little Katy was very upset that her older sister, Jayne, got a bigger hot dog than she did. Her frustrated mother took Katy's hotdog, cut it in half, and gave the two pieces back to Katy, saying: 'Well, now you have more. You have two and Jayne only has one'. Katy smiled and said: 'Now I have more than you Jayne!' What is responsible for Katy's reasoning?
Liz and Allen have looked up a wide range of books to identify the various developmental milestones that their newborn daughter will experience over the next few years, such as when she might start to roll onto her stomach, then crawl, then walk. Their focus on such milestones most emphasises the concept of
I was told that when I was young, if my mother left me alone, even if it was only for a couple of minutes, I would start crying loudly. As soon as she came back, I would ignore her, acting like she wasn't there. I displayed which type of attachment?
TRUST VS. MISTRUST
Baby Christopher's mum feeds him every 3 or 4 hours, burps him, walks with him when he is fussy and makes sure he is dressed warmly every time he goes outside for a walk with her
INITIATIVE VS. GUILT
Timmy's mum pours him a bowl of cornflakes and milk. She directs him to sit at the kitchen table. Timmy reaches for the bowl, announcing, 'I carry it!, on the way to the table lots of milk and cereal spill on the floor. Mum quietly cleans up the mess and thanks Timmy for his 'Help'.
AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT
Daniel doesn't want to wear the PJs his mother chose for him, Instead, he strongly prefers last night's (dirty) PJs. Daniel's mum agrees and dresses him in his (dirty) PJ selection.
INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY
Which of Erikson's Psychosocial stages would explain: the development of self esteem and competence, from 7-11 years old?
IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION
Which of Erikson's Psychosocial stages would explain: figuring out who you are and where you fit in, teenage years (adolescence)?
INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION
Which of Erikson's Psychosocial stages would explain: intimate relationships, 20's and 30's?
GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION
Which of Erikson's Psychosocial stages would explain: midlife crisis, 40's to 50's?
INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR
Which of Erikson's Psychosocial stages would explain: reflecting back on your life, 60 years +
Teratogens- achohol, crack-cocaine, radiation, viruses.
Can cause development and intellectual disabilities, most concerning at the embryonic stage, 3-8 weeks old.
28 weeks old
A foetus is capable of sustaining life at this point.
A touch on the cheek induces the infant to move its mouth toward the source of touch (helps guide feeding)
Tactile stimulation of the mouth produces rhythmic sucking. The rate of this increases with novel stimuli and decreases to familiar stimuli.
At 12months old, which milestone should a child have reached?
This milestone develops around 8months old.
21 years old
At this age final stages of your frontal lobes are developed.
When an infant has a tendency to pay greater attention to novel stimuli. Longer fixation times occur with novel stimuli.
the capacity to associate sensations of an object from different senses or to match one's own actions to behaviors that are observed visually.
The first theorist to suggest that children knew differently from adults. His interest was epistemology:the branch of philosophy concerned with the acquisition of knowledge.
He argued that children have schemas which are organised patterns of thought or behavior (and are the basis of knowledge). He believed cognitive development involved the
modification of intellectual schemas as the child seeks to understand its world. He proposed novel explanations of how children acquire knowledge and conducted experiments to test his hypotheses
• adopted a strict stage approach to development
• underestimated the capacities of infants and preschool children
• rarely considered the role of culture in cognitive development
Taking in new information and incorporating it into existing schemas.
Adjusting one's current schema to meet specific demands of an object or action.
For Piaget, the driving force behind cognitive development (i.e. need to adapt).
The realization that an object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen
A cognitive view in which a child understands the world to have only their view (has great difficulty in understanding the perspective of others). This was demonstrated in the three mountain task.
Understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape
Who emphasised the role of social interaction as a motivation for cognitive gains and learning, and had the following theory:
• Zone of Proximal Development stretches from sole performance to collaborative cooperation
- Children collaborate and strive together to enhance their levels of understanding
- Children also learn through observation and the imitation of significant others
Which disorder is NOT an inevitable part of the ageing process, but
• is a progressive and incurable disorder marked by global disturbances of higher mental functions - shown by only 5% of elderly persons
• Half of cases are related to Alzheimer's disease (AD)
- AD is associated with brain damage and loss of neurons critical for memory
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Which theory acknowledges that social development continues throughout the lifespan
• Each stage represents there solution of a developmental task
Possesses three important features
- Cultural sensitivity
- An integration of biological, psychological and cultural
- Supporting empirical evidence
Demonstrated by Harlow(1959) _______ was crucial element in forming attachment relationships in primates -infants clung to the terry cloth mother as though 'attached' to that mother.
_______ argued that attachment resembles imprinting (keep infant close to its caregiver)
- More likely to be fed, protected from predators and to be taught life skills
- Young are comforted by the caregiver and are distressed in its absence
_______ developed the strange situation assess attachment, measured distress at mother's leaving and reaction to mother's return
Disorganised Attachment (identified later)
Child may approach mother but gaze away, and may show odd motor behaviour and dazed facial expressions.
Child ignores the mother, as it has given up seeking reliable nurturance from significant others.
Ambivalent (conflicting feelings)
Child exhibits anger at the mother while seeking to be close to her, can become anxious at separations, clingy, overly dependent.
Place a high value on obedience and respect for authority but low on care.
Impose minimal controls on their children (associated with aggression conduct problems and health risk behavior)
Enforce standards,but encourage verbal give-and-take and high on care.
Place their own needs above those of their child (neglectful)
Morality of constraint (Piaget)
Children before the ages of 9-10
years conform to societal rules that are viewed as unchanging and unchangeable
Morality of cooperation (Piaget)
Older children and adults view
rules as strategies for keeping social interactions safe, fair and comfortable. Rules can be changed with mutual consent
Which stage of Kohlberg's moral reasoning explains- avoiding punishment and obtaining rewards
Which stage of Kohlberg's moral reasoning explains- meeting moral standards learned from others, avoiding their disapproval and maintaining law and order
Which stage of Kohlberg's moral reasoning explains- morality centres on abstract, carefully reasoned principles.
Which theory of moral development is in accordance to the following- changes in processing speed, knowledge base, automatisation and metacognition occur with age.
short term memory, everyday memory, long term memory storage + crystallised intelligence.
In regards to memory, older people seem to have relatively unchanged...
working memory (complex tasks) , processing speed, explicit memory retrieval, problem solving + fluid intelligence
In regards to memory, older people seem to have difficulty with..
Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
Piaget's Cognitive stage of development- thoughts and actions virtually identical, as the infant explore the world with it's senses and behaviour, child is egocentric.
Preoperational (2-7 years)
Piaget's Cognitive stage of development- symbolic thought develops, object permanence is firmly established; the child cannot co-ordinate physical attributes of objects from different perspectives.
_______refers to the process by which children learn the beliefs, values, skills and behavior patterns of their society
• Importance of child's temperament, parenting style and cultural context
Concrete operational (7-12 years)
Piaget's Cognitive stage of development- The child is able to perform transitivity, reversible mental operations on representations of objects; understanding of conservation develops, the child can apply logic concrete situations.
Formal operational (12 years+)
Piaget's Cognitive stage of development- can apply logic more abstractly; hypothetical thinking develops.
Neo-Piagetian theorists (Case)
Which theorists attempt to integrate an understanding of the broad stages of Piaget's theory with an information-processing approach; an important factor in qualitative changes in development is an increasing capacity for working memory
The scientific investigation of how our thoughts, feelings and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual imagined or implied presence of others.
Levels of social behaviour
-Intra-individual processes (social cognition, attitude formation)
- Inter-personal processes (between individuals eg helping behaviour- bystander effect)
- Group processes (nations, ethnic groups, interests)
______is a relatively enduring organisation of beliefs, feelings and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events and symbols. Cognitive component=think; Emotional component= feel; Behavioural component= do.
Which attitude dimension behaviour unconsciously/automatically, without realising? (eg racism)
Which attitude dimension is related to the degree of reasoning that forms an attitude? (e.g.. if you have a high level of_____ you are more likely to hold an attitude towards that behaviour as you have clear reasons).
Which attitude dimension explains conflicting evaluative responses toward an attitude object (e.g. i think i should exercise, however i feel lazy and hard to get up-both positive and negative response)
Which attitude dimension explains your internal consistency- do we like what we believe? (e.g. I don't really think that regular exercise makes a difference to wellbeing but I feel bad holding this belief)
Elaboration Likelihood Model -
Message recipient highly attentive and processes information through careful thought and rational thinking- high information content
Elaboration Likelihood Model- rational process and appeals to other processes such as heart and stomach e.g. fast food commercial
Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger)
When our behaviour is inconsistent with our attitudes.
- Or we receive information that is inconsistent with our attitude
- negative psychological tension
- When you may change an attitude to excuse, rather than a behaviour (when the fox fails to reach the grapes, he decides he does not want them anymore).
The study of how people attend to perceive, interpret and respond to social stimuli
Cognitive structures that represent knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus
- help us to understand our social world
- not just facts, but can be based on emotional reactions, attitudes and beliefs
Associated with a particular situation/event and tells us what to expect e.g.. at a kid bday party
Knowledge structures about specific people/types of people e.g. stereotypes, implicit personality theories (e.g.. extraverts- enjoy company of others, loud and fun)
Self- concept, future oriented schemas- what we would like to become
Schemas show one way our information processing can be biased. There is evidence that we make use of mental shortcuts or heuristics that are less time consuming strategies to yield quick results.
Cognitive shortcuts that yield quick estimates or answers or answers without having to carefully consider.
People judge an event's frequency by the ease with which they can bring it to mind.(most exposure)
People judge likelihood of group membership by comparing features of particular case to the prototype ignoring information on probability.
We assume similarity in one aspect leads to another. (eg salesman or librarian, matching stimulus to the prototype you have in your head,
ignoring the probability)
Your friend is late to pick you up from uni, if you blame your friend's personality (e.g.. your friend is always late). What type of attribution would you be making?
-Explaining the causes and events "the why of social interactions".
-Deciding if our own or others behaviour is internally or externally caused.
In Heider's Attribution model: attitudes towards a person
In Heider's Attribution model: attitudes towards circumstances
In Heider's Attribution model: an event or behaviour is due to stable, unchanging factors
In Heider's Attribution model: if an event or behaviour is due to unstable, temporary factors.
Kelley Covariation Model
We attribute a behaviour to the cause with which it covaries overtime.
In the Kelley Covariation model- what explains the following: Is it just that particular person or do all the people do it? do other people
respond that way?
In the Kelley Covariation model- The extent to which a person always responds in the same way to the same stimulus all the time
In the Kelley Covariation model- Individual likelihood to respond this way to many different stimuli. Does the person react to all targets in that particular way or
is it that particular target?
Fundamental attribution error or correspondence bias
Tendency to attribute another person's behaviour to his/her own dispositional qualities rather than to the situation.
Development of negative stereotypes re: disadvantaged groups ( stupid and lazy,rather than recognising their lack of resources).
Which coping mechanism for stress explains the following:
*The presence of others in whom one can confide and from whom one can expect help and concern
*Can be actual or perceived potential support
Involves family, friends, work colleagues, community and
*Protective against hypertension, herpes, cancer, and heart
*Buffering people against the effects of stress
*Making people less susceptible to the effect of stress in the first place
attempt to change the situation
(deal with the stressor itself)
attempt to change thoughts or emotional consequences of the stressor
select most appropriate method for dealing with the specific stressor
Positive affect (Fredrickson's)
learn and build from stressors, building coping resources for the future
If you are avoiding coping you are being....
In Lazarus & Folkman's, Stress as a Transactional Process, which explains the following: Person decides if the situation is benign, stressful or irrelevant — and if stressful, what to do about it
In Lazarus & Folkman's, Stress as a Transactional Process, which explains the following: Person evaluates options and decides how to respond
Type A Behaviour Pattern
Which personality explains the following characteristics: impatience, ambition, competitiveness,
hostility and being 'hard-driving', linked to heart disease
Which personality explains the following characteristics:
*Self-regulation of behaviour
*Persistence toward goals and disengagement from
What is the most significant source of stress?
In regards to stress, what psychobiological process explains: release of adrenaline and other hormones
(fight or flight response), mobilise resources
In regards to stress, what psychobiological process explains: respiration and heart rate return to normal, glucose levels and some stress-related
hormones remain high, cope with stressor
In regards to stress, what psychobiological process explains:After prolonged stress the body's
defences break down, increased vulnerability to infection/disease, reserves depleted
What explains the influence of psychosocial factors on the functioning of the immune system?
Which health model explains:
and Social factors interact and mutually influence one another.
Cancer+ heart disease+ strokes
What diseases are the leading cause of death?
What stage of the Health Belief Model explains the following: I smoke two packets of cigarettes a day, I could develop lung cancer.
What stage of the Health Belief Model explains the following: Many people die of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases.
Benefits and Barriers
What stage of the Health Belief Model explains the following: If I quit smoking, I will significantly reduce my chances of getting lung cancer. But smoking is relaxing.
Cues to Action
Advertisements everywhere show the perils of smoking; none of my family and friends smoke.
The Protection Motivation Theory of Health model includes all the elements of the health model but also adds _________. This is described as the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the sources of action required to manage prospective situations.
If you intervene in childhood or adulthood before a health issue arrises, this is called...
If you react to a health issue once it has already developed, e.g. In obesity- dieting, surgery ( gastric banding), this is called...
Which therapy explains the following...alcoholic patients are given something to couple with the drinking to give negative outcome, conditioning someone not to enjoy drinking.
The process of social behaviour that has to do with social cognition and attitude behaviour ( thoughts inside individual)
The process of social behaviour that has to do with the relationship between individuals (e.g.. helping behaviours; bystander effect)
The process of social behaviour that has to do with the relationships between groups ( e.g., nations, ethnic groups, political groups)
In the Theory of Planned behaviour if you have a positive attitude/ behavioural beliefs (e.g..If I study I will get good grades) this is called_____
In the Theory of Planned behaviour if you are influenced be significant others- important people around us holding positive attitude- you are more likely to engage in behaviour (e.g..your friends and family encourage you to study) this is called________
In the Theory of Planned behaviour if you have the behaviour facilitated by easy access (e.g..you have formed a study group, or taken time off work) this is called _____
Deliberate efforts to change attitude is called _____
In persuasion, if a politician chose to deliver his message via the television, this is called the ______
Your friend is late to pick you up from uni, if you blame the environment (e.g. the traffic must be really bad). What type of attribution would you be making?
Personal attribution - Low consensus
If Sally went to have a slice of cake and then spat the cake out, but she was the only one at the party doing so. According to Kelley's Covariation Model, Sally would have _______
Target attribution - High distinctiveness
If Sally only spat the cake out and didn't do the same to the other party food. According to Kelley's Covariation Model, Sally would have _______
Situational attribution - Low consistency
It was very unusual for Sally to spit the cake out and she has never done anything like this at a party before. According to Kelley's Covariation Model, Sally might have _______
If Harry failed the exam and it was explained to us that is was because he is a lazy person, and never studies. According to Heider + Weiner, the casual attribution would be _______ and _________.
If Harry failed the exam and it was explained to us that is was because he was really tired that day. According to Heider + Weiner, the casual attribution would be _______ and _________.
If Harry failed the exam and it was explained to us that is was because the Psych exam was really hard and is always really hard.
According to Heider + Weiner, the casual attribution would be _______ and _________.
If Harry failed the exam and it was explained to us that he studied really hard, but the questions on the exam were not the questions he studied for. According to Heider + Weiner, the casual attribution would be _______ and _________.
Tendency to attribute our own behaviour to external factors and others' behaviours to dispositional causes e.g. Katie fails exam- she didn't study enough, you fail- that exam was really hard.
Our tendency to attribute personal success to stable internal factors and failures to unstable external factors to preserve self esteem and make us look better. This is a very robust phenomenon.
In social influence, if someone yields to social pressure (real or imagined) this is called _____. This was demonstrated in Asch's (1955) experiment with the vertical lines, where the confederates chose the wrong length and therefore influenced others to do the same.
At this stage of Pyschosexual development, the major conflict is toilet training. However, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females. Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent.
The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. This period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. Fixations at the latency stage can lead to asexuality.
During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life. Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
If you overpraise someone, whilst being internally resentful. Freud says this defence mechanism is called....
If you are defensive in a way that is immature eg. name calling, tantrum throwing. Freud says this defence mechanism is called....
If your defence mechanism involves converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially acceptable behaviour. eg. boxing, drawing nudes. Freud calls this...
If you think everyone is out to cheat you, but in reality you are the one with questionable ethics. Freud calls this...
If the more you play pokies, the more likely you will get a reward, but you don't know how much you need to play pokies to get the reward. This would be a ....
It doesn't matter how much work Jenny does in a day, she is going to get paid on Friday every week regardless. This is regarded as a ...
No matter how many times I check Facebook in a day, at no predicted time I may actually get a Facebook message from a friend.
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