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genetics chapter 9
Terms in this set (26)
___is the cellular process of polypeptide production carried out by ribosomes under the direction of ______
_______assemble on mRNA & initiate translation at the start codon
polypeptide elongation and termination are similar in _____ & ______
bacteria & eukaryotes
carry amino acids to ribosomes
a virtually universal genetic code comprising of ___mRNA codons directs_______assembly
shared features of amino acids
central carbon molecule(alpha-carbon), an amino (NH3) group, and a carboxyl(COOH) group. each amino and carboxyl group is joined to the alpha carbon
during polypeptide bond, a___________ is formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next amino acid in the chain
distinctive portion of each amino acid, known as its side chain.
How does the eukaryotic initiation complex locate the true start codon?
The initiation complex moves the small ribosomal subunit through the 5 UTR, scanning for the start AUG.
Elongation factors translocate the ribosome in the 3 direction by a distance of
What normally binds to an open A-site on the ribosome?
A tRNA that carries the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain
A portion of mRNA attached to a ribosome reads:
5 GACCAUUUUUGA 3
In the polypeptide produced, what amino acid will be attached to the amino group of the histidine encoded by this mRNA?
aspartic acid (CUG), because it will use anticodons building in the 3-5 direction from the 5-3 mRNA
What would you expect to find bound to the stop codon at the A site?
During elongation, the charged tRNA is recruited to which location on the ribosome?
If you are designing an antibiotic that inhibits peptide bond formation, what enzyme would you target?
The ________ help control ribosome formation and binding of the initiator tRNA.
What is the Shine-Dalgarno sequence?
a short conserved nucleotide sequence upstream of the AUG start codon that serves to align the mRNA on the bacterial small ribosomal subunit
In the process of translational initiation in bacteria, where does the initiator tRNA first bind to the ribosome?
to the partial P site on the small ribosomal subunit
What is the final step of translational initiation in both bacteria and eukaryotes?
Union of the large subunit with the small subunit to form the intact ribosome
Which of the following steps in translation is NOT facilitated by elongation factors?
Binding of initiator tRNA to the AUG start codon
Once elongation is underway, tRNAs involved in the process occupy a series of sites on the complexed ribosome. The occupation of sites occurs in the following order.
A Site, P Site, E Site
When a peptide bond is formed between two amino acids, one is attached to the tRNA occupying the P site and the other _______.
is attached to the tRNA occupying the A site
A polycistronic mRNA contains multiple ________.
In a polyribosome, which end of the mRNA would have the shortest polypeptides?
In the unlikely event that a tRNA has been charged with the wrong amino acid, what high-fidelity enzyme is likely to blame?
Thanks to flexible base pairing, the wobble nucleotides in anticodons can be any of the RNA nucleotides or which modified nucleotide?
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