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(U-curve Hypothesis: Honeymoon, Hostility, Humor, Home) The process by which an individual adapts to a new culture.

Affective filter

The affective filter controls how much input the learner comes in contact with, and how much of that input is converted into learning. It is sometimes compared to a defense mechanism because it negatively impacts the learner's motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety level.


Phones that makeup one phoneme ("All the phones")


Phones that make up one phoneme ("All the phones")


A word that means the opposite of another word. For example, "hot" is the antonym of "cold."


Pronunciation accompanied by breathing out

Audiolingual Method

A rapid means of learning foreign languages (use to train military troops). It is a patterns of drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. Teachers reinforced accurate producation and error correction through consistent feedback (Terrell, Egasse, & Voge, 1982). Developers of the audiolingual method believe that when language learners practiced pattern drill and dialogue designed to develop particular language structures, the new language structures would become a habit. They viewed language acquisition as the memorization and recall of language patterns.



Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)

The language ability needed for casual conversation. This usually applies to the interpersonal conversation skills of CLD students (i.e, playground language). It's everyday, straightforrward communication skills that are helped by contextual supports such as gestures.


The belief that learning occurs through environmental stimuli and a learner's responses to those stimuli.

Bilingual Programs

Two-way developmental bilingual education, One-way developmental education, transitional bilingual education, ESL taught through academic content using current approaches, ESL putt-out


(Congitive academic language learning approach) A methos of instruction that is grounded in the cognitive approach and focuses on the explicit instruction of learning strategies and the development of critical thinking as a means of acquiring deep levels of language proficiency.


(Cognitive academic language proficiency) the language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.


The use of more words than necessary to express something, especially to avoid saying it directly.


Sometimes use both languages in the same conversation to express themselves

Congitive academic language proficiency

The language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.

Communicative competence

The ability of an individual to comprehend incoming messages and effectively communicate responses in ways that are appropriate for a given situation.

Communicative Language Teaching

Stressing the importance of language as a tool for communicating information and ideas through teaching

Communicative-based instruction

The communicative approach assumes that language production contains an infinite number of possible language combinations, so memorizing patterns and rules does little to prepare language learners for authentic language use.

Comparative adjectives

Ex: FastER, HappIER, MORE famous

Comprehensible input

Language delivered at a level understood by a learner

Consonant Clusters

In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits

Consonant diagraph

Diagraphs are "voiceless" combinations of two consonants. Following are examples: st, ch, sh, th, wh.

Consonant voicing

For all vowels, the air flows freely. Consonant sounds are formed when the air is constricted as it moves toward the lips. This constriction can involve simply slowing the air down or stopping it completely. The different consonant sounds depend on how and where the air is slowed or stopped.


Represents a throretical body of literature that views the human brain as having certain fundamental structures of understanding that enable it to draw meaning from experience. They believe that learning occurs as a result of interactions between the environment and the learner's mind.

Cultural bias on the test

Testing that contain issues of validity and biases in testing.

Cummins' cognitive academic language proficiency

The language ability needed for learning academic skills and concepts in situations in which contextual clues are not present and an abstract use of language is required.

Demonstrative pronouns

This, that, these, those, none and neither are examples.

Direct method

A grammatical approach that focuses less on explicit instruction of grammar rules and structures and more on the repetition and memorization of language patterns.

Dual-immersion programs

Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages.


English as a Foreign Language


Individuals who are in the process of transitioning from a home or native language to English

English for Special Purposes

Seek to prepare students to learn language for different environments, including the fields of medicine, engineering, computer science, and others.


( English as a Second Language) A programming model in which linguistically diverse students are instructed in the use of English as a means of communication and learning. This model is often used when native speakers of multiple first languages are present within the same classroom.

ESL Program Models

Programs that are culturally and linguistically sensitive towards students.


The discriminatory belief that one's culture is superior. Persons who hold this perspective fail to acknowledge the value of other cultures

Formative Evaluations

A type of on-going or in process evaluation that allows the teacher to evaluate the effectiveness of the lesson to ensure CLD student comprehension


Words that are pronounced in the same way as one or more other words, but is different in meaning and sometimes spelling, as are "hair" and "hare".

Immersion Programs

Refers to programs in which native and non-native speakers of English work together, with all students learning content and language through two languages

Krashen's Natural Approach

The notion of stages of second language acquisition is consistent with what Krashen has referred to as the natural order hypothesis

Language Interference

CUP vs. SUP, Transfer hypothesis

Lau vs. Nichols

Equal vs. Equitable treatment for ELL/CLD students


An individual who is in the process of acquiring English as his or her second language. (Limited English Proficient)


The study of how words are formed including aspect such as compounds, derivations, and so forth


National Association of Bilingual Education


To make a sound nasal by lowering the soft palate so that air flows through the nose.

Natural Approach

This hypothesis asserts that language is acquired in a more or less natural order - a predictable sequence of progression


The pronunciation of a speech sound by raising the tongue to or toward the hard palate.


The study of sound across languages


The study of sounds in speech, including their distribution and pronunciation


The study of distance individuals maintain between each other in social interactions and how this separation is significant.


The study of language acquisition and use in relation to the psychological factors controlling its use and recognition


The study of the meaning in language; the analysis of the meaning of words, phrases, sentences


The study of signs and symbols of all kinds, what they mean, and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to.


Indicated that spellers write only some of the letters in a word.

Silent period

The first stage of the process of second language acquisition, the preproduction stage, is often called the silent period because the CLD students may not communicate during this period except in nonverbal ways.

Silent way

It presented learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on the actions they witnessed.

Stages of second-language development

Preproduction, Early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency


The communicative method of suggestopedia was designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personally and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.

Summative Evaluations

The culminating assessments that occur at the end of lessons

Superlative Adjectives

The superlative is the form of an adjective or adverb that expresses the highest or a very high degree of the quality of what is being described.


A word that means the same, or almost the same, as another word in the same language, either in all of its uses or in a particular context.


The pattern of structure of word order in sentences, clauses and phrases' the grammatical rules that govern language


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages

Total Physical Response

Language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action.

Word Stress

In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength.

World Englishes

An international journal committed to theoretical research on methodological and empirical study of English in global, social, cultural and linguistic contexts.

Zone of proximal development

The area between the level of independent performance and the level of assisted performance.

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