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AP European History Chapter 30 &31
Terms in this set (95)
the Soviet Foreign Minister... for the Soviet Union's failure to allow Polish elections
"Sinews of Peace" address
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow." --Winston Churchill
The only UN body provided by the charter in which all member states are represented. The _________ was designed to be a deliberative body dealing chiefly with general questions of a political, social, or economic character. It meets in a regular annual session beginning the third Tuesday in September; special sessions are sometimes held. It has seven main committees set up to deal with specific matters designated as (1) political and security, (2) economic and financial, (3) social, humanitarian, and cultural, (4) trusteeship, (5) administrative and budgetary, (6) legal, and (7) special political.
A council made up of five permanent members( US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
This is a power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to prevent the adoption of any 'substantive' draft Council resolution, regardless of the level of international support for the draft
The founding document of the United Nations; it is based on the principles that states are equal, have sovereignty over their own affairs, enjoy independence and territorial integrity, and must fulfill international obligations. This also lays out the structure and methods of the UN.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
George C. Marshall
Truman's Secretary of State, came up with Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Soviet organization whose purpose was to denounce Marshall Plan aid.
the foreign minister and son of the founder of Czechoslovakia that was murdered by the members of the Cominform
a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, Minister of Foreign Affairs and the second President of Czechoslovakia. He was known to be a skilled diplomat.
Josip Broz Tito
He was the leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 until his death. During World War II, Tito organized the anti-fascist resistance movement known as the Yugoslav Partisans. Later he was a founding member of Cominform but resisted Soviet influence, and became one of the founders and promoters the Non-Aligned Movement. He died on May 4, 1980 in Ljubljana.
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
Following the termination of hostilities in World War II, the Allied Powers were in control of the defeated Axis countries. Anticipating the defeat of Germany and Japan, they had already set up the European Advisory Commission and a proposed Far Eastern Advisory Commission to make recommendations for the post war period. Accordingly they managed their control of the defeated countries through these, consisting of representatives of the major Allied Powers.
German Federal Republic
When Germany was divided, the United States, France, and Great Britain combined their territories to form West Germany, also known as this.
German Democratic Republic
In response to the formation of a united West Germany, the Soviets created this territory, also known as East Germany
Treaty of Brussels
1948, Provided the basis for the Paris treaty of 1954, signed by the UK, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg. Provided a mutual defense clause as well as a bulwark against the threat of a Communist attack. This is was the first of a such pacts against the Western powers, as well as being a precursor to NATO, In September 1948, the parties to the Treaty of Brussels decided to create a military agency under the name of the Western Union Defense Organization.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security, NATO.
Council of Mutual Assistance
the Soviet states and some Eastern European countries formed this to integrate their economies; also known as Comecon
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Israeli statesman who persuaded the United States to recognize the new state of Israel and became its first president (1874-1952)
Jewish community in Palestine which created many conflicts with the Arabs already living there
A state for the Jewish People, founded over much controversy, on May 14, 1948.
1948-1963 Israel's prime minister, state directed on 1)Army 2) Trade Union 3) Education System
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Also known as North Korea, this is a country backed by a Communist ideology.
Kim il Sung
(1912-1994) North Korean political leader and chief of state of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from 1948 to 1994; he established a government party based on the Soviet model, with the state controlling much of the economy, financing heavy industry and the military.
latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after MacArthur expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976), This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
People's Republic of China
The official name for Communist China, founded in 1893 by Mao Zedong
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
Wrote "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denishovick" which was about the concentration/labor camps in Russia. He won the Nobel Price and Khrushchev had the book published as part of the De-Stalinization program. "Gulag Archipelago" had him exiled from Russia.
Russian writer who had a book of his published in Italy to avoid the Soviet officials. He won the Nobel Prize for it but the government would not allow him to accept the award because he went against Russian protocol and government.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
Opposed Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became Prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957.
an inverted triangle-shaped peninsula in Egypt. It lies between the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea
the new communist leader in Poland. He attempted to ease the Polish conflicts. He was later allowed to adopt slightly more democratic policies.
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
Hungarian leader who gained power after the Soviets regained power '56; he was able to save some of the economic reforms of the former leader
"Ich bin ein Berliner"
a quotation from a June 26, 1963 speech by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in West Berlin. He was underlining the support of the United States for West Germany 22 months after the Soviet-supported Communist state of East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement between East and West. Translates to "I am a citizen of Berlin."
Paris Summit Conference
A meeting that was supposed to take place, but canceled because an American U-2 spyplane flew over the Soviet Union and Khrushchev couldn't forgive the US enough to take part in the meeting
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over the latter's placement of nuclear-armed missiles in Cuba.
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
He was the dominant political leader and grand figurehead of France during and after World War II. De Gaulle was a career soldier in the French Army who had been wounded and held prisoner during World War I. He rose to the rank of general and was serving as France's minister for National Defense and War in June, 1940, when France capitulated to Germany early in World War II. DeGaulle escaped to Britain, where he made a famous broadcast calling on the French people to resist (earning him the nickname of the "Man of June 18, 1940"). DeGaulle formed the Free French forces and led the provisional government that ruled France after it was retaken from Germany. After the war he was elected head of the French government.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used guerrilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
1954. arranged a settlement which brought about an end to the French Indochina war. The agreement was reached at the end of the Geneva Conference. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region. French Indochina was split into three countries: Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Vietnam was to be temporarily divided along the 17th Parallel until elections could be held to unite the country. These elections were never held. The Viet Minh established a communist state in the North led by Ho Chi Minh. The South was ruled by a right-wing government with US support under the heavily corrupt Ngo Dinh Diem.
Dien Bien Phu
In 1954, Vietminh rebels besieged this French garrison, deep in the interior of northern Vietnam. In May, after the United States refused to intervene, it fell to the communists.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO; A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
National Liberation Front
Ho Chi Minh wanted to unite Vietnam under Northern rule and aided what group of communist rebels trying to overthrow Diem in the south. Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Nguyen Van Thieu
He was a military commander and the president of South Vietnam. He was as corrupt as Ngo Dinh Diem.
Gulf of Tonkin
an arm of the South China Sea, bounded by the coasts of southern China and northern Vietnam. Its chief port is Haiphong. An incident in 1964 led to increased U.S. military involvement in the area. President Lyndon B. Johnson incorrectly claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Second Indochina War
Also known as Vietnam War. United States vs. Vietnam. Proxy war.
Six Days War
a war between Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. The Arab states of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria also contributed troops and arms. At the war's end, Israel had gained control of the Sinai Peninsula, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. The results of the war affect the geopolitics of the region to this day.
President of Egypt who negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981). Assassinated by a Muslim fundamentalist
Yom Kippur War
This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
Leader of Israel who signed a peace treaty with Egypt withdrawing from Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip and returning them to Egypt
The Camp David Accords
Menachem Begin in Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt met in 1978- 1979 at Camp David with Jimmy Carter (best ever US President) and made the first ever peace between Israel and an Arab country (land for peace). All three were eventual Nobel Peace Prize winners.
a fortified hilly area between southern Lebanon and southern Syria
Palestine Liberation Organization
A political group that claims to represent all Palestinians and to be working toward gaining an independent Palestinian nation.
leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization and his goal was the destruction of Israel
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
Persian Gulf War
a 1991 war in which the United States and its UN allies drove invading Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait
Israeli Prime Minister who signed the Oslo Accords which gave Palestinians in Gaza & West Bank limited self-rule
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the Second, from 1848 to 1852; the Third from 1875 to 1945; and the Fourth, from 1946 to 1958.
Organization for European Economic Cooperation
a.k.a. OEEC. it was the first group that was formed with the idea of European unity. it had the task of handling the money provided by the US through the Marshall Plan. it began the initial work of lowering tariffs and eliminating trade barriers among those states receiving assistance
A noted French statesman. He was a Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) and an independent political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO.
Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany
Alcide De Gasperi
was an Italian statesman and politician and founder of the Christian Democratic Party. From 1945 to 1953 he was the prime minister of eight successive coalition governments. His eight-year rule remains a landmark of political longevity for a leader in modern Italian politics. He is considered to be one of the Founding fathers of the European Union
A Belgian Socialist politician and statesman. His policy helped form the OEEC.
The Treaty of Rome
This treaty creates the "common market" or OEEC in 1957
European Common Market
the name for the area in Europe where companies can trade quite freely across the border with partners in other countries
European Free Trade Area
this was formed by Britain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and Portugal in 1959-it copied the OEEC
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Treaty of Maastricht
1992; European nations agree to make an economic and political integration with a common currency, passport, and banking system; Established structure and cooperation in immigration and law enforcement
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
the father of the Russian atomic bomb who in the 1960s became a fearless advocate of human rights
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
The Strategic Defense Initiative. It was a space-based missile system that would be merely defensive A protective web of missile satellites above the US. Reagan never had an intention of completing it, his purpose was to outspend the USSR, which was a result drove itself to bankruptcy.
Polish Communist who borrowed heavily from Western nations to rebuild the economy which simply led to Poland's great debts
Protest strikes in Poland in response to high meat prices. Ended in the workers' right to unionize
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP European History Chapter 21
AP European History Chapter 23
AP European History Chapter 26
AP European History Chapter 24
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