Upgrade to remove ads
Psych Test #4
Terms in this set (77)
A relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential brought about by experience and not due to temporary factors such as fatigue or hunger.
Learning that two things occur together or are associated.
Learning involving mental processing.
Learning by watching others.
Stimulus that is responded to innately, without learning. Elicits a reflective or emotional response.
The unlearned response to the UCS. It is an involuntary response.
Stimulus that is repeatedly paired with (predicts) the UCS; over time, the CS is responded to as if it were the US.
The response to the CS. It is also an involuntary response.
A tendency to respond in the same manner to similar stimuli.
Learn to respond to only the stimuli that predict the UCS.
The gradual weakening of a CR when the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS.
The reappearance of a CR after extinction has taken place.
Second Order Conditioning
A learned association between two CSs, one of which has been associated with the US.
Learning the association between behavior and the consequences of that behavior. Operant conditioning involves voluntary behaviors; that which we chose to do.
Brocess that increases the likelihood of a behavior to reoccur. Notice that this definition DOES NOT include "good" "desired" "pleasurable" or any other terms that connote liking of the reinforcer.
Process that decreases the likelihood of a behavior to reoccur. Notice that this definition DOES NOT include "bad" "undesired" "painful" or any other terms that connote disliking of the punisher.
A term used in operant conditioning to indicate when something is added to the environment that was not already present.
A term used in operant conditioning to indicate when something is taken away from the environment that was already present.
Adding something to the environment to increase the likelihood of the behavior to reoccur in the future.
Taking something from the environment to increase the likelihood of the behavior to reoccur in the future.
Adding something to the environment to decrease the likelihood of the behavior to reoccur in the future.
Taking something from the environment to decrease the likelihood of the behavior to reoccur in the future.
Stimuli who increase the probability of a response and whose value does not need to be learned, such as food, water, and sex.
Stimuli whose reinforcing properties are learned, such as money and material possessions.
Schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is applied after every instance of the response. Used when acquiring the association between the behavior and the consequence of the behavior.
Schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is presented after some, but not all, responses. Used to maintain the association between the behavior and the consequence of the behavior.
Also know as the method of successive approximations. Teaching a desired behavior by reinforcing a series of successive steps leading to the final response.
A sudden flash of understanding that occurs when you are trying to solve a problem. The "ah-ha" feeling.
Learning that occurs without reinforcement and remains hidden until some future time when it is demonstrated.
A mental image of an area that a person or animal has navigated.
Learning by imitating the behavior of others.
The idea that individuals come "into the world" ready to respond to certain situations with certain behaviors.
Conditioned Taste Aversions
After just one bout of becoming sick on a novel taste, animals, including humans, will avoid eating that food again.
Visual images and lasts about 1 second or less.
Auditory information and lasts about 3 seconds.
Since the information briefly stored in the sensory register is an exact copy of sensory experiences and since no processing is done with the information by the sensory memory, there are no errors in the sensory register.
The process for information to get from sensory memory to STM.
Short Term Memory
Information that is currently present; what you are currently thinking about.
Organizing information into meaningful units.
Saying information over and over to keep active.
Long Term Memory
Permanent memory storage, has an unlimited capacity, has unlimited duration.
Information that is intentionally learned; information that can be verbally described.
Fact information (definitions, equations, meanings, etc.)
Information that is processed without conscious awareness.
getting information INTO memory system
Serial Positioning Effect
when attempting to process a large amount of data, we tend to remember information from the beginning and information from the end, but we tend to lose the information in the middle of the data.
the depth to which STM contents are processed during consolidation to LTM.
processing the appearance and physical characteristics of the information
processing the sound of the information (rhyming)
processing the meaning of the information.
KEEPING information in the memory system
getting information OUT OF the memory system.
process of using a very general cue to search the contents of LTM; must generate appropriate answer
process of matching a specific stimulus cue to an appropriate item in LTM. Recognition tends to be easier than recall in most situations.
learning one set of items can affect learning of another set of items
recent information interferes with the recall of previously learned information
past information interferes with the recall of more current information
stimuli (words or phrases, locations, sights, smells, etc) that help with retrieving information from LTM.
we can retrieve information more easily if we are in the same physical location as we were when we first learned the information.
we can retrieve information more easily if we are in the same physical state (sleepy, hungry, intoxicated, etc) as we were when we first learned the information.
we can retrieve information more easily if we are in the same emotional state as we were when we first learned the information.
If we are exposed to information at one point in time, the next time we are exposed to it we can process it more quickly and retain it for a longer period of time.
a learning technique in which study sessions are interspersed with rest periods. Most appropriate for retaining information for the longest amount of time.
a learning technique in which study time is spent in long, unbroken intervals (cramming!) This can work for short-term retrieval, but is an ineffective method for long-term retention of information.
over time, unused synapses no longer are maintained, and "memories" degrade.
over time, new information overwrites or replaces old information.
there is some reason (usually unconscious) in which we don't really want to remember the information.
when we unconsciously forget something
When we consciously try to
this theory argues that it is in there somewhere, we just don't know how to get to it.
misremembering where you acquired information
Long Term Potentiation
repeated stimulation of the same neural pathway creates long-lasting (hours to days, if not longer) changes in the neural structures forming that pathway.
Release of Stress Hormones
some research indicates memories can be enhanced by the activation of stress hormones (cortisol and adrenalin), up to a point. Too much stress/arousal interferes with the formation of memory.
memories that appear "picture perfect" and clear.
memory loss of events that occurred before the brain injury
memory loss of events that occurred after the brain injury
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology Chapter 5&6 Vocabulary
Chapter 6 & 7
Memory & Learning
Psych Exam 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Lab Exam #2
Psych Test #3
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
DS2004 - Dr Ang's Kahoot Q's (week 1)
Psy 360- Exam #2 Smith
history unit 5