110 terms

AP Human Geography Chapter 4 & 5 Key Issues

-Chapter 4 Learning Guide : Folk & Popular Culture -Chapter 5 Learning Guide : Language
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What is the difference between a habit and a custom?
Habit is a repetitive act of an individual person - wearing jeans every day.
Custom is a repetitive act of a group so much that it becomes characteristics of that group - college students wearing jeans every day.
Define folk culture:
Practiced by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas.
Define popular culture:
Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Folk culture is more likely to vary from __________ to ________ at a given time, where __________ _________ is more likely to vary from ________ to _________ at a given place.
place, place, popular, culture, time, time
What are the elements of the origin and characteristics of folk music?
- folk songs are usually composed anonymously & passed on orally
- sometimes songs are modified from generation to generation
-tell a story about daily activities such as farming or life events such as birth, death & marriage or environmental events such as storms & earthquakes
What are the elements of the origin and diffusion of popular music?
- originated in the 1900's in NYCs Tin Pan Alley & eventually diffused globally during WWII through radio to American soldiers
- Hip Hop also began in NYC & diffused globally through online broadcasts & music sales on the web
What are the hearths of today's Hip Hop music in the U.S. ?
NYC, Oakland, Atlanta & other large cities in the South, Midwest & West
Where did Amish culture originate, and how did it diffuse to the United States?
In areas of Switzerland, Germany & France. Diffused to U.S. in 1700's & 1800's because of cheap land in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois & Iowa.
In what ways is Amish culture distinct from the popular culture of the United States?
Don't use mechanical or electrical power; still use horse & buggy and hand tools for farming. Located in isolated rural areas with distinct clothing, farming & religious practices.
What is happening to the Amish in the United States today?
They are interregionally migrating from Pennsylvania to Kentucky in search of cheaper land due to metro areas & tourists in Pennsylvania.
What are the areas of larger Amish settlements in the U.S.?
Portions of Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania & upstate New York.
How was soccer transformed from a folk custom into popular culture?
Became an organized, formal sport in Britain in 1800's with standardized rules, professional players & paying spectators. The spread throughout Europe in late 1800's.
Despite their anonymous folk origins, what characteristics of organized spectator sports today characterize them as popular culture?
Professional players, ability to watch in person or on TV & people who follow the sports worldwide.
Label popular sports with the countries in which they are most popular and with which they are best associated.
Cricket (Britain & former colonies), Ice Hockey (Canada, northern Europe & Russia), Martial Arts (China), Baseball (U.S. & Japan), Lacrosse (N.E. U.S., S.E. Canada)
How does clothing style (in this case shoes) indicate the influence of the environment on folk culture?
In arctic regions, snowshoes may be required for the ability to walk & fur-lined boots to keep warm. In wet regions, wooden shoes keep farmers from getting their feet wet.
List 3 different examples of food habits and the unique folk cultures each illustrates.
Quick frying foods resulted in Italy as a result of fuel shortages; Stews & roasting food resulted in northern Europe as a result of abundant wood supply; Asians have adapted ways of cooking soybeans to make them edible without extensive cooking due to scarce fuel.
Food Taboos with Hebrews in eastern Mediterranean
Animals without cloven feet because concerns for environment
Food Taboos with Muslims in Arabian Peninsula
Pork because pigs compete with humans for food & water without offering any benefits
Food Taboos Hindus in India
Cow because they pull plows & are needed for agricultural work
In what sense are building materials of folk housing unique?
Building materials are influenced by the resources available in the environment.
What cultural institution shapes the differences in the Himalayas' local art?
Religion
What environmental conditions (which are the same for all groups here) are NOT ensuring similar art forms in this case?
Climate, landforms & vegetation
What are the housing styles Fred Kniffen identified with each region?
- New England (4 styles) : Saltbox, Cape Cod, Two Chimney, Front Gable & Wing

- Middle Atlantic (1 dominant style) : "I"-house was two stories in height, one room deep & two rooms wide (resembled the letter "I").

-Lower Chesapeake : Tidewater style was one story and one room deep with steep roof and chimneys at both ends. In wet areas, houses were raised on piers or brick foundation.
In contrast to folk customs, popular customs diffuse ___________________ across the Earth's surface to location with a wide variety of ________________ ________________. This diffusion depends, however, upon a group of people having a sufficiently high level of ___________________ _______________________ in order to obtain the ______________________ ___________________ associated with the popular custom.
rapidly, physical conditions, economic development, material possessions
Consumption of large quantities of what two food products are characteristic of popular culture?
Alcoholic beverages & snack foods
How is each of these food preferences expressed regionally, according to culture?
Alcohol has low consumption in S.E. & Utah due to religion; certain types of alcohol consumed in more regions than other due to where it's produced (i.e. Tequila popular in southwest). In snack foods, southerners may prefer pork rinds because there are more hogs in the south where in the north more chips are eaten because of the abundance of potatoes (i.e. tortilla chips in Texas due to large Hispanic population).
In Western countries where popular culture predominates, clothing styles generally reflect _______ rather than particular ________.
jobs, environments
What are 3 facts about clothing styles associated with popular culture?
Income influences clothing; original fashions are reproduced inexpensively for chain stores; diffusion of TV exposed people in MDCs to other clothing forms.
_______ are an important symbol of the _______ of Western _________ __________.
Jeans, diffusion, popular culture
What are the housing styles?
Minimal Traditional, Ranch House,
Split-Level, Contemporary Style,
Shed Style
Minimal Traditional
decade: 1940s-1950s;
facts: One story; small & modest; for young families & vets returning from WWII
Ranch House
decade:1950s-1960s
facts: One story; long & parallel to street; took up large lot; encouraged sprawl of urban areas
Split-Level
decades: 1950s-1970s
facts: Bottom level - garage & family room; middle level - kitchen, formal living & dining rooms; top level - bedrooms
Contemporary Style
decades: 1950s-1970s
facts: Architect designed with flat, low pitched roofs
Shed Style
decade: 1960s
facts: High pitched roofs gave house geometric qualities
What are the Neo-eclectic styles of the 1960's and 1970's?
Mansard, Neo-Tudor, Neo-French & Neo-Colonial
Give 2 reasons for which television is an especially significant element of culture.
Most popular leisure activity in MDCs & most important tool by which knowledge of popular culture is diffused.
Where is television universal?
N. America, Europe, eastern & southern S. America, China, Australia
Where is Television is Common?
Middle East, southern & southeast Asia, western S. America, northern Africa
Where is Television is Rare?
Africa - central & southern
Currently, where is the Internet most widely available?
N. America, Europe & Australia
In what regions will it most likely continue to grow?
Middle East, S. America, southern Asia & southeast Asia
What regions, then, does that leave as still relatively untouched by the Internet, in the foreseeable future?
Sub-Saharan Africa
How and where has folk clothing styles worldwide been threatened by popular culture?
African & Asian businessmen have adopted the suit of Western culture as a symbol of authority & leadership.
How have women in many parts of the world been helped by the spread of popular culture? How have they been hurt?
Women are becoming less subservient. However, in LDCs prostitution has increased to serve men form MDCs on "sex tours".
What 3 countries dominate worldwide television markets? What regions does each dominate?
U.S dominates Latin America.
Great Britain dominates Africa.
Japan dominates South & East Asia.
Why do developing nations view television as a new source of cultural imperialism?
LDCs consider TV as a threat by MDCs to their independence because the media presents American beliefs that force out LDCs social customs.
What are the world's two largest newspaper organizations? What countries are they associated with?
- Associated Press: U.S.
- Reuters: Great Britain
In many parts of the world, what is the only reliable and unbiased source of news information?
BBC World Service
How is the playing of golf and golf courses an example of a popular custom that is not generally in harmony with the local environment?
Due to their large size, they are an imposition on the environment by "remaking" the environment.
What is a uniform landscape?
Spatial expression of a popular custom in one location is similar to another.
How and why is this concept utilized by fast-food restaurants?
Through franchises and it generates product recognition (people recognize a fast-food chain wherever they are).
What are the two ways in which popular customs have an adverse effect on the natural environment?
Depletion of scarce natural resources & pollution of landscape
Define language:
System of communication through speech which is a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
Define official language:
Language a country designates used by the government for all laws, reports & public objects such as money & road signs
How did English become widely diffused?
Through colonial expansion by England in the 17th, 18th & 19th centuries (migration from England)
What 3 European people originally came together to form the English people and English language?
Angles, Jutes & Saxons
Where did these people come from?
Angles - southern Denmark; Jutes - northern Denmark; Saxons - northwest Germany
What 2 subsequent invasions added additional words to the evolving English language?
Vikings & Normans (French)
Dialects are defined as "regional variations of a language" and are distinguished by 3 things. What are they?
Vocabulary, spelling & pronunciation
Define standard language:
Form of language used for official government business, education & mass communications
What is the standard language for of English?
The standard language is British Received Pronunciation (BRP).
Where did it come from (3 cities)?
It came from London, Cambridge & Oxford.
How was it diffused throughout Britain?
It diffused Via the printing press which produced dictionaries & grammar books .
In a single word, why is American English different from that spoken in England?
Isolation
anguage differences, as exhibited in dialects tend to be greater in _______ _________ than in _______ because...
rural areas, cities; because farmers tend to be isolated from interaction with people with other dialects.
Why is there a relatively uniform form of English (dialect) spoken across this enormous area?
Migration or mobility of Americans
Define language family:
Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history
Define language branch:
Collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago (recorded history)
Define language group:
Collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin and have few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Iranian Group (Western)
- Iran & southwest Asia
- Persian (Farsi) in Iran
- Pashto in Afghanistan
- Kurdish used by Kurds in western Iran, northern Iraq & eastern Turkey
- ALL written in Arabic
Indic Group (Eastern)
- Languages of India, Pakistan & Bangladesh
- 438 languages spoken in India
- Official languages of India - Hindi & English
- 22 scheduled languages
- Hindi spoken many ways but only written 1 way (Devanagari)
How did Russian become the most important East Slavic language?
With the rise of the Soviet Union to power after WWII it forced native speakers of other languages to learn Russian
What is the most important West Slavic language?
Polish
Describe the controversy between Czech and Slovak languages under Czechoslovakia's government? What happened?
Government tried to balance the use of both languages. This contributed to the resentment of Czechs by the Slovaks
Why are South Slavic languages, which were once very similar to each other, becoming increasingly different today?
Due to isolation & hostility towards one another these because these countries are no longer unified under Yugoslavia
In the Balto-Slavic Branch: What are the 4 most contemporary Romance languages?
Spanish, Portuguese, French, & Italian
How did Latin languages diffuse in Europe? What happened to the native languages?
They were brought by Romans who conquered lands, and native languages were suppressed
Define Vulgar Latin:
Latin that was the spoken form of the masses (populace) & not the literary form
Why is it that nearly 90% of Spanish & Portuguese speakers live outside of Europe?
Due to the colonial activities of Spain & Portugal in Latin America
Why is it difficult to distinguish individual languages from dialects?
Because people choose to believe their languages are distinct
Define creolized language:
Language that results in mixing the colonizer's language with the indigenous language
What is the name of the (theoretical) common ancestral language of all languages discussed in this key issue of the chapter?
Proto-Indo-European
Why is its existence difficult (impossible) to prove?
It existed thousands of years before the invention of writing or recorded history
"Kurgan" Theory
- Nomadic Warrior Thesis
- Kurgans (from present day Russia)
- Kurgans conquered land in Europe & southern Asia spreading Proto-Indo-European
- Between 3500-2500 BC
Renfrew Hypothesis
- Sedentary Farmer Thesis
- In present day Turkey 2,000 years before the Kurgans
- Diffused through Europe & southern Asia through agricultural practices
Indo-European Family:
Spoken by 46% of world's people; includes Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic & Indo-Iranian
Sino-Tibetan Family:
Spoken by 21% of world's people (mostly in China); most important language is Mandarin & is imposed by Chinese gov't; Uniform written language that has many ideograms (characters) that represent ideas
Austronesian Family:
Spoken by 6% (mostly in S.E. Asia); specifically Indonesia; 122 active languages; most common Javanese
Afro-Asiatic Family:
Spoken by 6% (mostly in Middle East); most spoken language is Arabic
Niger-Congo Family:
Spoken by 6% (mostly in Africa); 95% of Sub-Saharan Africa speak the languages; Swahili is most common language & is 1st or 2nd language of the people
Dravidian Family:
Spoken by 4% mostly in India
Japanese Family:
Spoken by 2%; use of ideograms (characters) that represent ideas & phonetic symbols
Altaic Family:
Spoken by 2% (mostly in Asia); most spoken language is Turkish; once written in Arabic, then Roman alphabet, then Cyrillic
Korean Family:
Written in a system called Hankul (each letter represents a sound); words derive from Chinese & Japanese
Austro-Asiatic Family:
Spoken by 2% (mostly in S.E. Asia); Vietnamese most spoken language & written in Roman alphabet (A,B,C, etc.)
Tai Kadai:
Principal language spoken in Thailand & some portions of China
Uralic Family
Languages spoken in Estonia, Finland & Hungary; 1st used 7,000 years ago by people in Ural Mountains of Russia & spread to Europe through migration
Nilo-Saharan Family:
Northern & central Africa; only a few speakers but divided into 6 branches
Khoisan Family:
Southwest coast of Africa; unique usage of clicking sounds; named by whites in southern Africa as "Hottentot"
Nigeria: Problems in a multi-linguistic state
Africa's most populous country; 514 distinct languages; No national unity due to no common language; Different regions battle; To reduce tensions, gov't moved the capital from Lagos (southwest) to Abuja (central, neutral region); Example of great language & cultural diversity
Celtic Languages: The struggle for survival of a language family
- Ireland : Irish Gaelic (1.5 mil speak it) & English
- Scotland : Scottish Gaelic spoken by 1% of population; Gaelic brought by Irish
- Wales : Brythonic (Welsh) spoken by 22% of population; declined in 19th century when English speakers migrated to work in coal mines
- Brittany : Breton (incorporates French) spoken by 250,000
- Cornwall : Cornish became extinct in 18th century; attempting to revive it
Belgium: Political & linguistic divides
- Belgium divided into 2 different regions (Flanders in north & Wallonia in south)
- Flanders : Flemings speak Flemish (dialect of Dutch)
- Wallonia : Walloons speak French
- Many in Flanders want Belgium divided into 2 separate countries
- Flanders would be one of Europe's richest, while Wallonia would be one of Europe's poorest
Issues Faced for Hebrew
Has been revived after becoming nearly extinct in 4th century BC; became one of the official languages of Israel in 1948 to unify all the refugees; 4,000 new Hebrew words had to be created; modern Hebrew dictionary created
Issues Faced for Switzerland
Peacefully exists with multiple languages; key is decentralized gov't where local authorities hold most of power; 4 official languages - German, French, Romansh & Italian; cultural diversity accepted because power is in small communities
Issues Faced for Basque
Isolated language not attached to any language family; 1st language of people of Pyrenees mountains of northern Spain & southwest France; lack of connection to other languages reflects isolation of the Basque people
Issues Faced for Icelandic
Related to Germanic branch of Indo-Euro family; received language from migrants from Norway; Icelandic is least changed Germanic language due to Iceland being so isolated & not coming in contact with other Germanic languages
Define lingua franca:
Language of international communication by people with different native languages
Define pidgin language:
Form of speech used by different native speakers that adopts simplified grammar & vocabulary of a lingua franca
How has expansion diffusion occurred with English?
Through diffusion of vocabulary, spelling & pronunciation as well as English words fusing with other languages