AP Human Chapter 5: Languages
Terms in this set (105)
? helps distinguish cultural values
langue, religion, and ethnicity
the study of language follows logically from
migration, because the contemporary distribution of languages around the world is largely a result of past migrations of people
Why do in 2 locations speak the same language?
because of migration from one location to another. If the 2 groups have few connections with each other after migration the languages spoken by the 2 groups will begin to differ. after a Long period of time without contact, the 2 groups will speak languages that are so different they are classified as separate languages
what does the interplay between interaction and isolation help explain?
helps explain the distribution of regions of individual languages and entire language families.
how do people incorporate new words into their language?
when people travel to new places, they contribute words brought with them to the existing languages
what do geographers look at to understand the diffusion and interaction of people around the world?
the similarities among languages
What stands as a source of pride to a people, and a symbol of cultural unity?
Language is ?
a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.
literary tradition ?
a system of written communication, without this it is difficult to document the distribution of many languages
official language ?
the language that is used by the government for laws, reports, and public objects, such as road signs, money, and stamps.
What is a language family?
a collection af languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recored history, trunk of the tree
A collection of language within a family related through a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago; difference are not as extensive or as old as between language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display many similarities in grammar and vocab
What is the most widely used language family?
Indo-European, it is predominant in Europe, South Asia, and north and Latin America
Symbols hat represent words or meaningful parts of words
Encompasses languages spoken in the people's republic of china-the worlds most populous state at 1.3 billion
Spoken by 6% of the worlds people who are mostly in Indonesia- worlds 4th most populous country
spoken by 2% of world's population
Vietnamese is most popular language
Was once classified as a branch of sino-Tibetan. Principle languages are spoken in Thailand and neighboring portions of china. Some linguistics scholars speculate that people speaking these languages may have migrated from the Philippines.
Uses 2 systems of phonetic symbols, like western language, used either in place of a logran or alongside them. Chinese cultural traits have diffused into the Japanese society, including the original form of writing the Japanese language.
Korean in not written with lograms but in a system known as hankul, In this system each letter represents a sound. More than half of the Korean vocabulary derives from Chinese words
Arabic is the major language, an official language in 2 dozen countries of southwest Asia and North Africa, and one of the 6 official
Are thought to have originated in the steppes of bordering the Qilian Shan and Altai mountains between Tibet and China. Present distribution covers a 5000 mile band of Asia. Most speakers speak Turkish
Every European country is dominated by Indo-European speakers except for?
Estonia Finland and hungry, these people speak languages that belong to the Uralic family
Uralic and Altaic families were once thought to be linked as 1 family, but now we know these families have geography distinct origins. Uralic is traceable back to be common language Proto-Uralic. Migrants carried the Uralic languages to Europe, and retained their language as a major element of cultural identity
African language families
European missionaries and colonial officers began to record African languages using the Roman or Arabic alphabet. More than 1000 distinct languages and several thousand named dialects have been documented most lake a written tradition
more than 95% of the people in the sub-Saharan Africa speak languages of the Niger-Congo family. n
Spoken by a few million people in north central Africa, this is north of the Niger-Congo language region, six branches with relatively few speakers in each branch
What does the Turkish leader believe would help modernize turkeys economy and culture through increased communications with European countries?
Ordering Turkish citizens to write with Roman letters instead of Arabic
A distinctive characteristic is the use of clicking sounds. Hottentot is the most important language
What does a great number of languages result from ex. Afrikaans language family
At least 5000 years of minimal interaction among the thousands of cultural groups inhabiting African continent each developed its own language religion and other cultural traditions in isolation from other groups
What are the two largest language families?
Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan
Where is the Indo-European language family primarily found
North America Europe and Latin America and South Asia
Where is the Sino-Tibetan language family primarily found?
What language family does English belong to?
How many branches is the Indo-European language family divided into?
Eight branches, Albanian, Armenian,Baltic-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo-Iranian, Romance
German is Structurally similar to English, German and English belong to the west Germanic group of the Germanic language branch of the Indo-European family, West Germanic is further divided into high germanic and low Germanic subgroups, so named because they are found in high and low elevations within present day Germany. Also includes a north Germanic languages
High Germanic subgroup
Spoken in the southern mountains of Germany and it is the basis for the modern standard German language
Low Germanic subgroup
Includes English Dutch Flemish, and a dialect of German
North Germanic languages
Spoken in Scandinavia, includes Swedish Danish Norwegian and Icelandic, these derive from the principal language spoken throughout Scandinavia before AD 1000 (old Norse) four distinct languages emerged after that time because of migration and the political organization of the region into four independent and isolated countries
Branch of the Indo-European language family with the most speakers, includes more than 100 individual languages, this bridge is divided into an eastern group (Indic) and a western group (Iranian)
Indic (eastern) group
Language is one of the main elements of cultural diversity in India, Ethnologue I don't file is 438 live which is currently spoken in India, The most widely used language in India belongs to the Indic group (Hindi) Hindi grew into a national language in the 19th century when the British encourage its use in the government, there are many other languages spoken though. Devanagari is he only way to write Hindi
Iranian (western) group
Spoken in Iran and neighboring countries in Central Asia, major languages include Persian in Iran, Pashto in Eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, and Kurdish, used by the Kurds of western Iran. Please languages are written in Arabic alphabet because of slaves migrating from Asia to different areas of Eastern Europe and living in isolation from one another this branch can be divided into east west and south Slavic groups as well as a Baltic group.
Where does the Germanic language predominate?
Northern and Western Europe
Language families in India
India's principal official language is Hindu which has many dialects the country has 22 scheduled languages that the government is required to protect
East Slavic and Baltic Groups
The most widely used Slavic languages are the eastern ones primarily Russian which is spoken by more than 80% of Russian people Russian is one of the six official languages of the United Nations importance of Russian increased with the Soviet unions rise to power. After Russian Ukraine and belarusan are the two most commonly used east Slavic languages
West and south Slavic languages
Most spoken language is Polish followed by czech and Slovak. Czech and Slovak are very similar The government tried to balance the use of the two languages he's bouncing measures were effective in promoting national unity during the communist era. The most widely used south Slavic language is the one spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. When these places were all part of Yugoslavia the language was callled sero-Croatian. Now, differences have crept into the south Slavic languages, Bosnian muslims have introduced Arabic words used in their religion and Croats have replaced the words regarded as having ace European origin with the words considered to be purely Croatian
Evolved from the Latin language spoken by the Romans 2000 years ago, most widely used languages or Spanish Portuguese French and Italian, The fifth most widely used Romance language is romanian, this is the principle language of Romania and Moldova. It is separated from the other romance speaking European countries by Slavic speaking people, The distribution of romance languages show the difficulty in trying to establish the number of distinct languages in the world
What is an example of a strong intervening obstacle creating barriers to communication between people living on opposite sides
Why does contemporary distribution of languages exist
Because of patterns of origin and diffusion, The origin and initial diffusion of language families predate recorded history so we can only speculate about them, but language branches and individual languages have originated in diffused since recorded history began ex. English
How has modern English primarily involved
From the language spoken by the tribes invading the British Isles known as the angles jutes and Saxons
Why did other languages get added to the basic English
Others invaded England, ex vikings
Why is English different from German today
Because England was conquered by the normans in 1066, the normans spoke French, then if you were people in England wished to speak French and English became the countries dominant language
Why does the contemporary distribution of English speakers around the world exist?
Because the people of England migrated with their language when they established colonies over the course of four centuries
Diffusion of English to North America
Occurred in the 17th century, first successful in North America beginning with James town Virginia 1607, after England defeated France in the battle to dominate the north American colonies during the 18th century English became the primary language of North America.
Origin and diffusion of Romance languages
Spanish Portuguese French Italian and Romanian are apart of the same branch because they all developed from Latin, the "Romans" language, The rise in importance of the city of Rome brought a diffusion of its Latin language. Vulgar Latin was introduced to the provinces by the soldiers stations throughout the empire. After the collapse of the Roman Empire Communication among the former provinces declined this created isolation long enough for distinct languages to evolve
Would be single ansester of the indo-European language family if it could be proved.
Nomadic Warrior Hypothesis
By marija gimbutas, says the first Proto-Indo-European speakers were the kurgan people, these people were nomadic herders, they migrated in search of grasslands for their animals, this took them Westword through Europe east word to Siberia, and south east word to Iran and the South Asia
Sedentary Farmer Hypothesis
archaeologist colin renfrew argues that the first speakers of Proto Indo-European lived 2000 years before the kurgans in eastern Anatolia, parts of present-day Turkey, he believes they the fuse from Anatolia West word to Grace and a from Greece westward towards Italy, Sicily Corsica, the Mediterranean coast of France, Spain answer Portugal. From the Mediterranean coast the speakers migrated northward toward central and northern France and on to the British Isles. Indo-European is also said to have diffuse north word from grace toward the Danube River and westward to central Europe according to colin. From there the language to fuse northward toward the Baltic Sea and east word toward the dnestr river near Ukraine, from the dnestr river speakers migrated east word to the Dnepr river. The Indo Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family originated either directly through migration from Anatolia along the south of the black and Caspian seas by way of Iran and Pakistan, or indirectly by way of Russia north of the black and Caspian seas. He also sayes indo European diffused using agricultural practices rather than military conquest
A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary spelling and pronunciation
A word usage boundary, Isoglosses are determined by collecting data directly from people particular natives of rural areas
What happens when speakers of the language migrate to other locations
Various dialects of that language may develop
Why did major differences in US dialects originate
Because of differences in dialects among the original settlers
New England settelments
Inhabited almost entirely by settlers from England, 2/3 are Puritans from East Angelia in southeastern England
What influences the adoption of the same words throughout the country
Mass media especially television and radio
Regional pronunciation differences are more familiar to us then word differences
South eastern settelments
Most came from south eastern England a diversity of social class backgrounds, these immigrants were more diverse
widely recognized as the most acceptable for government business and education and that's communication
It is well known around the world as the dialect commonly used by politicians broadcasters and actors, used by S residence in the capital city of London and the two important universities of Cambridge and Oxford
English dialect spoken in the United Kingdom especially in rule areas can be grouped into what three main dialects
Northern Midland and southern
What do the changes between English reflect
Patterns of migration
Why don't Americans speak received pronunciation?
English language was brought to the North American continent by colonists from England who settlers on the Atlantic coast beginning in the 17th century. The early colonists now actually spoke the language they had been using in England at the time
Why is the English language in the United States so different from that in England?
Isolation, separated by the Atlantic ocean English in the United States and in England evolved independently during the 18th and 19th centuries with little influence on one another, there was little migration from each country until the 20th century
What are the three ways US English differs from the English of England
Vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
How does the vocabulary of the US English differ from the English of England?
Settlers may have encountered new objects and experiences, Americans met native Americans, As new inventions appeared require different names on either side of the Atlantic
How did the spelling of US English differ from the English of England
American spelling diverged from the British standard because of a strong national feeling in the United States for an independent identity Noah Webster, the creep feeder of the dictionary, what's the term and to develop a uniquely American dialect of English he either ignored or was unaware of the recently created rules of grammar and spelling to Belton England Webster argued that spelling and grammar reforms would help establish a national language reduce cultural dependence on England and inspire national pride
How did the pronunciation of US English differ from the pronunciation of English in England
From the time of arrival in North America colonists began to pronounce words differently from the British this is considered normal, for interaction between the two groups was mainly letters, Americans pronounce an accented syllables with more clarity than British English speakers
Spanish and Portuguese dialects
In Spain The dialect of Castilian spread southward over the next several hundred years as independent kingdoms were unified into one large country. Portuguese developed as a separate language because of Portugal's relative isolation on the West Coast Spanish is the official language of 18 Latin American states in Portuguese spoken in Brazil these two romance languages what if you still Americas by Spanish and Portuguese explorers
This was once regarded as a dialect of Spanish but now linguists agree that it is a separate Romance language, developed as a separate language after the collapse of the Roman empire,balear is a dialect
It dialect of Portuguese or a distinct language is debated among speakers of Galician, the academy of Galician considers it a separate language in a symbol of cultural independence. The Galician Association of the language prefers it to be considered a dialects because as a separate language it would be relegated to a minor and obscure status
What is the distribution of a language the measure of
The fate of a cultural group
The boundary between the romance in Drammatic branches run through the middle of two small European countries, Belgium in Switzerland, southern Belgians speak Flemish, a dialect of the Germanic language Dutch, This language boundary sharply divided the country into two regions economically and politically
Switzerland peacefully exists with multiple languages, the key is a long tradition of Decentralized government in which local authorities hold the most power in decisions
Africa is most populous country, displays problems that can arise from the presence of many speakers of many languages. Nigeria has 527 distinct languages, groups living in different regions of Nigeria have often battled, to reduce the regional tensions the government has moved the capital, But you are you reflects the problems that can arise when cultural diverse city and therefore language diversity is packed into relatively small region
A language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family
What does the diffusion of Indo-European languages demonstrate
That a common ancestor dominated much of Europe before recorded history
A pre-indo-European Survivor: Basque
Best example of an isolated language in Europe
Once used languages, but they are no longer use or spoken in daily activities by anyone in the world
And extinct language: Gothic
Widely spoken by people in eastern and northern Europe in the third century, This language died because the descendants of the goths were converted to other languages there's a process of integration, such as political dominance in cultural preference
Reviving an extinct language Hebrew
Hebrew diminished in the fourth century and wasn't there after retains only for Jewish religious services when Israel was established as an independent country in 1948 Hebrew became one of the new countries to official languages along with Arabic Hebrew was chosen because the Jewish population of Israel Consisted of refugees and migrants from many countries who spoke many languages
How are languages safe from extinction
They have significant speakers and official government support
Dominant in wales until the 19th century when many English speakers migrated there to work in coal mines and factories
Official language of Ireland, the revival of Irish is being led by young Irish living in other countries who wish to distinguish themselves from English
How does Australia and New Zealand regard english
Australia regards English as a tool for promoting cultural diversity whereas new Zealand regards linguist diversity as an important element of cultural diversity
Education is oriented towards teaching English rather than maintaining local languages, and essential element in maintaining British culture was restriction of immigration from non-English-speaking places during the 19th and early 20th century
New Zealand has adopted policies to be reserve the Maori language, Mallory has become one of New Zealand's three official languages along with English and sign language
Preserving Occitan in France
The most important linguist stick difference within France is between the north and the south, most commonly spoken language is French, the standard for a French derives from Francien, this became the countries official language in the 16th century, and local dialect started to disappear as a result of the capitals long time dominance over French political economic and social life occitan is spoken by about 2 million people in southern France and adjacent countries
What has the dominance of English as an international language facilitated from
The diffusion of popular culture and science in the growth of international trade
A language of international communication
A group that learns English or another lingua franca may learn a simplified form, this language has no native speakers
In what two ways has expansion diffusion occurred with English
English is changing through diffusion of new vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation, English words are fusing with other languages
Some African-American speak a dialect of English heavily influenced by the groups distinctive heritage have a forced migration from Africa during the 18th century to be slaves in the southern colonies, in the 20th century many African-Americans migrated from the south to the larger cities in the north east and Midwest, many African Americans preserve their distinctive dialect
The widespread use of English in the French language
A combination of Spanish and English
What has strengthened the dominance of English
Communication through the Internet
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