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The point where two or more bones meet is called a


Three types of muscles

smooth, skeletal, cardiac

Vessels that carry blood away from the heart


parts of the immune system

white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen, and lymph nodes

What major organ's role is to maintain homeostasis by removing urea, water, and other wastes from the blood


the brain and spinal chord make up what system?

nervous system

Hormones are essential to maintaining homeostasis mainly because they cause specific _________ in specific targets.


Where are eggs produced in a human?


Bacteria and Archae are the only organisms characterized as



a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions

Why do we study viruses, when they aren't alive?

They share living characteristics, and are made of proteins and glycoproteins like cells.

How are viruses classified

type of genetic material, and capsid shape


a virus that contains single stranded RNA and produces a reverse transcriptase, which converts RNA into DNA

label virus: capsid, head, tail, viral nucleic acid, collar, sheath, base plate, tail fibers

Vector. Give examples

A vector is an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or parasite to another organisms. Vectors of virals humans, animals, mosquitos, ticks, and fleas

How do we treat viral diseases?

Through vaccination, vector control, and drug therapy

Characteristics of protists

body plan, means of obtaining food, and motility. lack cellular differentiation

What are the specialized structure of algae?

holdfasts which anchors them (seaweed), or lamina

How do fungi obtain energy?

Fungi secrete enzymes into their food, and then absorb the digested nutrients through their cell walls.

Why are fungi important to the ecosystem?

They live on organic compounds from dead organisms, which make them a very important recycler of organic material.

What occurs in the meristems of plants?

Plant growth originates in the meristems, regions where the cell continuously divides.

Compare fibrous root to a taproot

When a seed produces a primary root, the first becomes the largest, it's called a taproot. When numerous roots develop and branch, they produce a fibrous root system.

What is the function of the endodermis in a plant?

The inner most boundary of the cortex is the endodermis. Endodermal cell walls contain a narrow band of a waterproof substance that stops the movement of water beyond the endodermal cells.

What is bark composed of?

Bark consists of cork, cork cambium, and phloem

Compare what xylem transports in a plant to what phloem transports

Phloem carries organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and inorganic nutrients in any direction, depending on the plants needs. Xylem carries absorbed water and inorganic nutrients in one direction , from the roots to the stems and leaves.

The tissue of the leaf mesophyll that is located directly below the upper epidermis and consists of tightly packed column-shaped cells is the _________ __________.

palisade mesophyll

The sporophyte generation in mosses produces spores by?


In which structure does a moss produce eggs?


What are the main characteristics of a fern?

they have leaves, most have an underground stem, and most produce spores on the underside of their leaves.

Where is pollen produces in a plant?


Plant Parts. Stamen (filament, anther), pistel (stigma, style, ovary), petal, sepal, ovule, receptacle.

What is the primary purpose of fruits in plants?

fruit: mature, ovary. Fruits protect seeds, aid in their dispersal, and often delay their sprouting.


a plant growth movement that occurs in response to the direction of a source of light

What does change in turgor pressure do in a plant?

Turgor pressure helps the plants structure, and ability to hold upright. When a plant loses too much turgor pressure, it wilts.

Explain how a spore is made and what happens after it is released?

Fungi produce genetically identical haploid spores. After they are released they germinate and grow a new hyphae.

What did Miller and Urey produce in their experiment

produced a variety of organic compounds, including amino acids. its possible for life in prehistoric earth.

What is RNA and how does it differ from DNA?

NA and RNA are made of a nitrogen base, phosphate group, and ribose sugar. The only difference is between the ribose sugars of DNA and RNA.The ribose sugar of DNA is DEOXY ie,it has one LESS oxygen molecule than the ribose sugar of RNA.

Scientists have inferred that the first cells were prokaryotic and ____________.


_________ ____________ is when organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited to the same environment.

natural selection

Natural selection could not occur without?

genetic variation

The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are _______ structures


Over millions of years, plants and their pollinators have __-evolved.


What type of population is more susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift?


The type of selection that may eliminate intermediate phenotypes is _______ selection.

disruptive selections

What are the major limitations to the morphological concept of species?

All individuals do not look alike

Only then can natural selection or perhaps genetic drift produce distinctive gene pools.

Only then can natural selection or perhaps genetic drift produce distinctive gene pools.

postzygotic isolation

A type of reproductive isolation that occurs after members of two different species have mated and produced a hybrid offspring. Such hybrids are usually unable to reproduce.

The hypothesis that evolution occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time is known as __________ equilibrium.


The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus __________.

Quercus, the first name in a scientific name is the Genus.

Two organisms in the same order but different families may have what in common?

domain, kingdom, phylum, and class (Drunk Kings Play Cards On Fridays Generally Speaking)

What is the least inclusive group of classification?


Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom __________.


Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the domain ____________.


The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom ____________.


What are the requirements of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium theory?

1.No net mutations 2.No individuals leaving or entering 3.Large Population 4.Random Mating 5.No Selection

What is the biological species concept inadequate for grouping

Asexual organisms

A group of organisms of different species living together in a particular place is called a


What does an ecosystem consist of

biotic factors which consist of living organisms (producers, consumers, and decomposers). abiotic factors such as sunlight temperature, water or air

The specific physical location in which a given species lives is called its


When an organisms dies, what happens to the nitrogen in its body?

A: Ammonification which is the process whereby nitrogen in organisms is recycled after their dead.

The areas of an organism's tolerance curve that lie at the extreme high or low for an environmental variable represent the zones of __________ performance of the organism.


In a food web, which type of organism receives energy from every other type?

Large carnivores who are in trophic level 4.

How much energy transfers from level to level in a food pyramid?

10 percent

Water and minerals needed by all organisms on Earth pass back and forth between the biotic and abiotic portions of the environment in a process called the _________ __________.

biogeochemical cycle

Precipitation and evaporation are important components of the _________ cycle.


How do humans affect the carbon cycle?

Humans contribute to the increase by burning fossil fuels and other organic matter.

Commensalism, mutualism, parasitism

commensalism:one benefits the other is unaffected, mutualism:both species benefit, parasitism:one benefits other is harmed

competition and symbiosis

competition two different organisms competing for the same resource. symbiosis two different organisms live in close association of each other

primary succession

succession that begins in an area that did no previously support life

Characteristics of Pioneer Species

tend to be small, grow quickly, and reproduce quickly

Which biome is characterized by evergreen trees that are adapted to long winters, short summers, and nutrient-poor soil?


Large herds of grazing animals are most likely to be found in which biome?



the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in aquatic environments

Organisms with light-producing body parts would most likely be found in what zone of the ocean?

aphotic zone

The greatest diversity and abundance of life in the ocean is found in what zone of the ocean?

The Neritic Zone

What is the process of harnesses energy for organisms living near deep-sea vents called?


Mangrove swamp forests and salt marshes are examples of communities found in ____________.

freshwater wetlands

ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

ectoderm:the outermost of the three germ layers, endoderm:the innermost germ layer, mesoderm: the middle germ layer

What are the major characteristics of sponges?

heterotrophic, multicellular, do no have cell walls, no gastrula stage, exhibit less cell specialization, and no true tissues or organs

What mollusks have a closed circulatory system?


What is the function of Malpighian tubules in insects?

it is an excretory tube. they are hollow projections of the digestive tract that collect body fluids and wastes to carry them out to the intestine

What are reptile adaptations to living on land?

tough, scaly skin that keeps them from drying out; amniotes eggs that will not dry out on land; and strong, sturdy legs and feet

Unlike other reptiles, turtles and tortoises do not have _________.

teeth, instead they have a sharp beak

Food taken into a bird's body is ground up in the _________.


A bird's heart has ____ chambers.


Mammals and birds have ____ chambered hearts.


Mammals arose from early reptiles called


The offspring of ________ mammals are born early and complete their development in their mother's pouch


When comparing Homo habilis and Homo erectus, we find that Homo erectus was taller and walked ________.


What covers the gill chamber in fish and protects the gills?


Amphibians have thin, moist skin in order to allow easier ___ exchange


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