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Biology Final Exam

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The point where two or more bones meet is called a
joint
Three types of muscles
smooth, skeletal, cardiac
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arteries
parts of the immune system
white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen, and lymph nodes
What major organ's role is to maintain homeostasis by removing urea, water, and other wastes from the blood
kidneys
the brain and spinal chord make up what system?
nervous system
Hormones are essential to maintaining homeostasis mainly because they cause specific _________ in specific targets.
effects
Where are eggs produced in a human?
ovaries
Bacteria and Archae are the only organisms characterized as
prokaryotes
endospore
a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions
Why do we study viruses, when they aren't alive?
They share living characteristics, and are made of proteins and glycoproteins like cells.
How are viruses classified
type of genetic material, and capsid shape
retrovirus
a virus that contains single stranded RNA and produces a reverse transcriptase, which converts RNA into DNA
label virus: capsid, head, tail, viral nucleic acid, collar, sheath, base plate, tail fibers
Vector. Give examples
A vector is an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or parasite to another organisms. Vectors of virals humans, animals, mosquitos, ticks, and fleas
How do we treat viral diseases?
Through vaccination, vector control, and drug therapy
Characteristics of protists
body plan, means of obtaining food, and motility. lack cellular differentiation
What are the specialized structure of algae?
holdfasts which anchors them (seaweed), or lamina
How do fungi obtain energy?
Fungi secrete enzymes into their food, and then absorb the digested nutrients through their cell walls.
Why are fungi important to the ecosystem?
They live on organic compounds from dead organisms, which make them a very important recycler of organic material.
What occurs in the meristems of plants?
Plant growth originates in the meristems, regions where the cell continuously divides.
Compare fibrous root to a taproot
When a seed produces a primary root, the first becomes the largest, it's called a taproot. When numerous roots develop and branch, they produce a fibrous root system.
What is the function of the endodermis in a plant?
The inner most boundary of the cortex is the endodermis. Endodermal cell walls contain a narrow band of a waterproof substance that stops the movement of water beyond the endodermal cells.
What is bark composed of?
Bark consists of cork, cork cambium, and phloem
Compare what xylem transports in a plant to what phloem transports
Phloem carries organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and inorganic nutrients in any direction, depending on the plants needs. Xylem carries absorbed water and inorganic nutrients in one direction , from the roots to the stems and leaves.
The tissue of the leaf mesophyll that is located directly below the upper epidermis and consists of tightly packed column-shaped cells is the _________ __________.
palisade mesophyll
The sporophyte generation in mosses produces spores by?
mitosis?
In which structure does a moss produce eggs?
archegonium
What are the main characteristics of a fern?
they have leaves, most have an underground stem, and most produce spores on the underside of their leaves.
Where is pollen produces in a plant?
anther
Plant Parts. Stamen (filament, anther), pistel (stigma, style, ovary), petal, sepal, ovule, receptacle.
What is the primary purpose of fruits in plants?
fruit: mature, ovary. Fruits protect seeds, aid in their dispersal, and often delay their sprouting.
phototrophism
a plant growth movement that occurs in response to the direction of a source of light
What does change in turgor pressure do in a plant?
Turgor pressure helps the plants structure, and ability to hold upright. When a plant loses too much turgor pressure, it wilts.
Explain how a spore is made and what happens after it is released?
Fungi produce genetically identical haploid spores. After they are released they germinate and grow a new hyphae.
What did Miller and Urey produce in their experiment
produced a variety of organic compounds, including amino acids. its possible for life in prehistoric earth.
What is RNA and how does it differ from DNA?
NA and RNA are made of a nitrogen base, phosphate group, and ribose sugar. The only difference is between the ribose sugars of DNA and RNA.The ribose sugar of DNA is DEOXY ie,it has one LESS oxygen molecule than the ribose sugar of RNA.
Scientists have inferred that the first cells were prokaryotic and ____________.
chemotrophic
_________ ____________ is when organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited to the same environment.
natural selection
Natural selection could not occur without?
genetic variation
The beak of a bird and the beak of a giant squid evolved independently and serve the same function. The beaks are _______ structures
analogous
Over millions of years, plants and their pollinators have __-evolved.
co-evolved
What type of population is more susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift?
small
The type of selection that may eliminate intermediate phenotypes is _______ selection.
disruptive selections
What are the major limitations to the morphological concept of species?
All individuals do not look alike
Only then can natural selection or perhaps genetic drift produce distinctive gene pools.
Only then can natural selection or perhaps genetic drift produce distinctive gene pools.
postzygotic isolation
A type of reproductive isolation that occurs after members of two different species have mated and produced a hybrid offspring. Such hybrids are usually unable to reproduce.
The hypothesis that evolution occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time is known as __________ equilibrium.
punctuated
The organism Quercus phellos is a member of the genus __________.
Quercus, the first name in a scientific name is the Genus.
Two organisms in the same order but different families may have what in common?
domain, kingdom, phylum, and class (Drunk Kings Play Cards On Fridays Generally Speaking)
What is the least inclusive group of classification?
species
Most multicellular, nucleated autotrophs that carry on photosynthesis belong to the kingdom __________.
plantae
Simple, non-nucleated organisms that use hydrogen to produce methane are in the domain ____________.
Archaebacteria
The kingdom defined as including any eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi is the kingdom ____________.
protista
What are the requirements of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium theory?
1.No net mutations 2.No individuals leaving or entering 3.Large Population 4.Random Mating 5.No Selection
What is the biological species concept inadequate for grouping
Asexual organisms
A group of organisms of different species living together in a particular place is called a
community
What does an ecosystem consist of
biotic factors which consist of living organisms (producers, consumers, and decomposers). abiotic factors such as sunlight temperature, water or air
The specific physical location in which a given species lives is called its
habitat
When an organisms dies, what happens to the nitrogen in its body?
A: Ammonification which is the process whereby nitrogen in organisms is recycled after their dead.
The areas of an organism's tolerance curve that lie at the extreme high or low for an environmental variable represent the zones of __________ performance of the organism.
poor
In a food web, which type of organism receives energy from every other type?
Large carnivores who are in trophic level 4.
How much energy transfers from level to level in a food pyramid?
10 percent
Water and minerals needed by all organisms on Earth pass back and forth between the biotic and abiotic portions of the environment in a process called the _________ __________.
biogeochemical cycle
Precipitation and evaporation are important components of the _________ cycle.
water
How do humans affect the carbon cycle?
Humans contribute to the increase by burning fossil fuels and other organic matter.
Commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
commensalism:one benefits the other is unaffected, mutualism:both species benefit, parasitism:one benefits other is harmed
competition and symbiosis
competition two different organisms competing for the same resource. symbiosis two different organisms live in close association of each other
primary succession
succession that begins in an area that did no previously support life
Characteristics of Pioneer Species
tend to be small, grow quickly, and reproduce quickly
Which biome is characterized by evergreen trees that are adapted to long winters, short summers, and nutrient-poor soil?
Taiga
Large herds of grazing animals are most likely to be found in which biome?
Savanna
plankton
the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in aquatic environments
Organisms with light-producing body parts would most likely be found in what zone of the ocean?
aphotic zone
The greatest diversity and abundance of life in the ocean is found in what zone of the ocean?
The Neritic Zone
What is the process of harnesses energy for organisms living near deep-sea vents called?
chemosynthesis?
Mangrove swamp forests and salt marshes are examples of communities found in ____________.
freshwater wetlands
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
ectoderm:the outermost of the three germ layers, endoderm:the innermost germ layer, mesoderm: the middle germ layer
What are the major characteristics of sponges?
heterotrophic, multicellular, do no have cell walls, no gastrula stage, exhibit less cell specialization, and no true tissues or organs
What mollusks have a closed circulatory system?
cephalopods
What is the function of Malpighian tubules in insects?
it is an excretory tube. they are hollow projections of the digestive tract that collect body fluids and wastes to carry them out to the intestine
What are reptile adaptations to living on land?
tough, scaly skin that keeps them from drying out; amniotes eggs that will not dry out on land; and strong, sturdy legs and feet
Unlike other reptiles, turtles and tortoises do not have _________.
teeth, instead they have a sharp beak
Food taken into a bird's body is ground up in the _________.
gizzard
A bird's heart has ____ chambers.
Four
Mammals and birds have ____ chambered hearts.
four
Mammals arose from early reptiles called
synapsids
The offspring of ________ mammals are born early and complete their development in their mother's pouch
marsupial
When comparing Homo habilis and Homo erectus, we find that Homo erectus was taller and walked ________.
erect/upright
What covers the gill chamber in fish and protects the gills?
operculum
Amphibians have thin, moist skin in order to allow easier ___ exchange
gas