WSET Level 3 Flashcards
Key facts and terms taken from the WSET Level 3 study materials. WARNING these flashcards should NOT be the only way you prepare for the exam.
Terms in this set (514)
The wine tastes more drying and bitter, more acidic. Less sweet and fruity.
What effect does a sweet food have on wine?
Since sweet food can dull the taste of a wine (losing its fruit and becoming unpleasantly acidic), a good general rule is to select a wine with a higher level of sweetness.
What type of wine should you pair with sweet food?
Increases the perception of bitterness, astringency, acidity and alcohol burn in the wine. It also decreases the perception of body, sweetness, and fruitiness of the wine.
What effect does umami food have on wine?
Pair with low tannin, lower alcohol red wines without (or limited) oak character. Crisp whites with minimal oak and lower alcohol also work well.
What type of wine should you pair with umami food?
Salt will increase the perception of body in a wine and decrease astringency, bitterness and acidity.
What effect does salty food have on wine?
Fruity and rich (less bitter. less alcoholic)
Salty foods will make a tannic, alcoholic red wine taste more ......... ?
Acid in food will increase the perception of body, sweetness, and fruitiness in wine. It will also decrease the perception of acid in a wine.
What effect does acidic food have on wine?
It's a good rule of thumb to pair high acid food with high acid wine (as wines can appear flat and flabby if the acid of the wine is overwhelmed by the food).
What type of wine should be paired with acidic food?
Bitterness in food increases the bitterness in wine.
What effect does bitter food have on wine?
The wine can be overwhelmed by the food flavors.
What effect does highly flavored food have on wine?
Pair with wines of similar intensity or flavors.
What type of wine should be paired with highly flavored food?
It makes the wine appear less acidic.
What effect does fatty/oily food have on wine?
Pair with wines of high levels of acidity.
What type of wine should be paired with highly fatty/oily food?
When did the European Union change it's wine laws?
1) Protected Designation of Origen (PDO)
2) Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)
What are the two labelling terms of EU wines with a geographical indication?
Apellation d'Origine Controlee (AC or AOC)
What term is used to delineate a PDO wine from France?
Vin de Pays (VdP) or Indication Geographique Protegee (IGP). IGP has appeared on many wine labels begining with the 2009 vintage.
What term is used to delineate a PGI wine from France?
Vin de France
What term is used to delineate a wine in France without any geographical indication?
Located in south-west France, Bordeaux has a moderate/maritime climate.
What is the location and climate of Bordeaux?
What type of soil is found in the Medoc, Haut-Medoc, and Graves regions of Bordeaux?
Clay with limestone subsoil
What type of soil is found in the St-Emilion and Pomeral regions of Bordeaux?
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
5) Petit Verdot
What are the 6 main black grape varieties of Bordeaux (in order of most to least vineyard acreage)?
2) Sauvignon Blanc
What are the 3 main white grapes of Bordeaux (in order of most to least vineyard acreage)?
Are there high or low density plantings in Bordeaux?
Lower yields for higher-quality wines
Do the higher quality wines of Bordeaux experience lower or higher yields?
1) Ripening Grapes
2) Fungal disease
What are two key vineyard challenges in Bordeaux?
Machine harvesting. The gentle sloping vineyards of Bordeaux are suitable for machine harvesting.
What type of harvesting is used throughout Bordeaux?
Hand-picking is typical for grapes affected by noble rot used for sweet wine production (Sauternes, Barsac, etc)
For what type of wine style is hand-harvesting required in Bordeaux?
Grape varieties are fermented separately and blended after fermentation.
For Bordeaux red winemaking, are the grape varieties fermented separately or together?
In wooden vats or in new or used oak barriques (225 liters)
What is Bordeaux red wine typically matured in?
They are made ready-to-drink with a high proportion of Merlot in the blend, matured in a vat with no new oak.
In Bordeaux, how are inexpensive red wines typically produced?
Higher-priced wines use traditional fermentation and have a higher proportion of new oak for maturation; these wines will need maturing in bottle for several years.
In Bordeaux winemaking, how are higher-priced red wines typically produced?
Typically, stainless steel for a short period of time so that it can retain the varietal characteristics.
How is dry Sauvignon Blanc typically aged in Bordeaux?
Yes, oak is often used to ferment and/or mature blends of dry Semillon/Sauvignon Blanc wines (ie Pessac-Leognan). It is also used in the production of sweet wines of Bordeaux.
Is oak ever used to mature white wine in Bordeaux?
red, white, and rose
What types of wines are produced under the Generic Bordeaux AC?
1) St Estephe
3) St Julien
What are the 4 famous regions producing red wines in the Haut-Medoc from north to south?
Name 4 appellations that can put their name in front of the term Cotes de Bordeaux for greater recognition.
What are 3 premium dry white wine regions of Bordeaux?
What are 2 sweet white wine regions of Bordeaux?
Undisturbed in a cool dark place with a constant temperature, ideally around 10-15 C (50-59 F). There should also be constant humidity, and wines sealed with a cork should be stored on their side.
What are the ideal conditions for longer term storage of wines that improve with age?
Vertical 'basket' press where the pressure on the grapes comes from above using a plate that is lowered or raised using a screw or lever.
What is the traditional type of wine press used and explain how it works.
Similar to Bordeaux but with less maritime influence.
What is the climate of southwest France?
Name the major appellation in southwest France that produces a style of wine similar to Bordeaux.
Cotes de Gascogne IGP
What is the most important IGP in Southwest France?
Monbazillac (sweet white wines)
Which AC wine, considered a Bordeaux "copy", is made with Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc?
Which key wine region of southwest France makes a Malbec based red wine?
Which key wine region of southwest France makes red wines from Tannat, Cab Franc, and Cab Sav?
Which key wine region of southwest France makes dry and, more importantly, sweet wines from Petit Manseng?
Generally dry, light-bodied white wines made from Ugni Blanc with aromas and flavors of green apple.
Describe the style of wine to be expected from the IGP Cotes de Gascogne.
Located in northeast France. Burgundy has a moderate/continental climate.
What is the location and climate of Burgundy?
Chablis has a cool continental climate and is cooler than the moderate continental climate found in the rest of Burgundy.
How does the climate of Chablis differ from the rest of Burgundy?
What are two major environmental hazards that vineyards face in Burgundy?
Grey rot is the malevolent form of botrytis which affects unripe berries or black grapes; causing off flavors and a lack of color. The frequent summer rains in Burgundy make the area prone to greyrot.
What is "grey rot" and why is it an issue in Burgundy?
Limestone overlaid with Kimmeridgian clay.
What type of soil is found in Chablis?
(1) Bourgogne Rouge (2) Bourgogne Blanc (3) Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Nuits (4) Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Beaune (5) Bourgogne Cote Chalonnaise (6) Macon (7) Macon Villages
Name 7 regional appellations of Burgundy.
What type of soil is found in Beaujolais?
What is the main black grape variety of Burgundy?
What is the main black grape variety of Beaujolais?
Chardonnay and Aligote
What are the two main white grape varieties of northern Burgundy?
What is the main white grape variety of southern Burgundy?
Are there high or low density plantings in northern Burgundy?
What type of pruning system is used on the vines of northern Burgundy?
Mid-slope on the east or southeast facing hillside vineyards.
Topographically, where can the best vineyards of northern Burgundy be found?
Head trained Gobelet pruned vines.
What type of pruning system is employed in Beaujolais?
On granite hillsides in the northern part of Beaujolais.
Where are the best vineyards found in Beaujolais?
Carbonic maceration is used in what part of Burgundy?
Yes, mid to high priced red wines go through a moderate use of oak maturation.
Is oak maturation used for the red wines of Burgundy?
Typically, stainless steel is used. Very little oak is used for Chablis AC wines. It is more likely to be seen with Grand Cru Chablis or even some Premier Grand Cru.
Is oak used to mature the white wines of Chablis?
The region lies to the south of the Cote d'Or where the higher altitude makes ripening less reliable.
What natural factors influence the wine quality and differentiate the wines in the Cotes Chalonnaise from their famous northern neighbor?
What is considered to be the higher level of quality in Chablis: Premier or Grand Cru?
1) Les Clos
4) Les Preuses
What are the 7 vineyards that form Chablis Grand Cru AC?
What are the 7 key villages in the Cote de Beaune?
What are the 4 key villages of the Cote Chalonnaise?
Volnay and Pommard
What two villages in the Cote de Beaune produce only red wine?
1) Pouilly-Fuisse (2) Saint-Veran
What are the 2 most famous village appellations of the Maconnais?
1) Saint Amour
10) Cote de Brouilly
What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus from north to south?
For regional Burgundian wines that do not qualify for a higher AC, they must have Bourgogne in the title.
Regional Burgundian wines that do not qualify for higher AC must have what word in its title?
3) Premier Cru
4) Grand Cru
What are the 4 classifications in Burgundy?
for wines from single communes (villages)
When is the term "commune" used in Burgundy?
Premier Cru wines of Burgundy must show the village name followed by the vineyard name on the label.
For labelling of Premier Cru wines in Burgundy, does the village name come before or after the name of the vineyard?
Only the vineyard name appears on the label of Grand Cru wines in Burgundy.
For labeling Grand Cru wines in Burgundy, does the village name come before or after the name of the vineyard?
Located in northeast France. Alsace has a sunny, and dry continental climate.
What is the location and climate of Alsace?
No, Alsace is protected from rain and wind from the west by the Vosges Mountains; providing long, dry autumns.
Does Alsace experience heavy rainfall? Why or why not?
3) Pinot Gris
What are the four noble varieties of Alsace (from most widely planted to least)?
What is the only red variety allowed in Alsace?
1) Pinot Blanc
Aside from the 4 noble grape varieties, what are 3 other important white varieties in Alsace?
They lie on the steep east or southeast facing slopes of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains.
Where are the best vineyards in Alsace located?
Yes, the low disease pressure in the sunny, dry conditions allows for this.
Can biodynamic farming be practiced in Alsace?
Wine producers in Alsace typically use stainless steel or large, very old casks to mature their wine. These inert vessels allow for the grapes varietal characteristics to be expressed/retained.
In Alsace, which maturation vessel is preferred? Why?
With the exception of Pinot Blanc, malolactic fermentation is generally not used because it can mask the pure fruit flavors.
Is malolactic fermentation ever used in Alsace?
An Alsatian wine made from a blend of grapes. The term translates into "noble blend."
What is an Edelzwicker?
A blended wine from Alsace
What is Gentil?
How many Alsace Grand Cru's are there?
The label will include the name of the vineyard. The wines are dry to off dry.
What must be included on the label of an Alsace Grand Cru wine? Are the wines typically dry or sweet?
A late harvest wine made in Alsace. Only the noble varieties are permitted.
What is a Vendage Tardive?
A sweet wine from Alsace made from grapes affected by noble rot. They can only be made from the noble varieties of Alsace.
What is a Selection de Grains Nobles?
The wines are typically varietally labelled.
What differentiates Alsace from other French wine regions?
Located in northwest France, the Loire experiences three different types of climates:
1) Nantais and Anjou = Cool Maritime
2) Touraine and Central Vineyards= Cool Maritime with an increasing Continental influence.
3) Central Vineyards - Continental
What is the location and climate of the Loire?
Because of the length of the river, there are signification variations in weather patterns in the Loire Valley. Variations in the weather patterns from year to year can mean that vintages differ widely.
Do weather patterns vary or stay consistent throughout the Loire Valley?
4) Central Vineyards
What are the four subregions of the Loire Valley?
Dry, full bodied Chenin blanc wines. Air circulation around the well exposed vineyards impedes noble rot but enables late harvest Chenin Blanc for full bodied, complex dry wines that can age for decades.
What is the general style of Savennieres and what is the main climatic influence creating this style?
1) Cabernet Franc
What are the 2 key red grape varieties of Anjou-Samur?
1) Cabernet Franc/ Cabernet Sauvignon
What red grape varieties are used for rosé wines in Anjou-Samur?
What is the key white grape variety of Anjou-Samur?
What is the key red grape variety of Touraine?
1) Chenin Blanc
2) Sauvignon Blanc
What are the 2 key white grape varieties of Touraine?
Red= Pinot Noir
White = Sauvignon Blanc
What are 2 key grape varieties of the Central Vineyards?
Beaujolais and Champagne both require whole bunches; Beaujolais for carbonic maceration, and Champagne to minimize oxidation and color.
What two wine regions famously require hand-picked grapes?
Allowing grapes to shrivel on the vine, resulting in a concentration of sugars and flavors.
1) Noble Rot
Which two methods of production are used to make sweet wines in the Loire?
There is some use of oak for Cabernet Franc
Is oak used to mature red wine from the Loire?
Gamay in Beaujolais
Which grape is carbonic maceration commonly associated with in France?
Very little oak is used and neutral vessels are preferred.
Is oak used for white wine maturation in the Loire?
Comes from the Nantais region of the Loire Valley. Muscadet sur Lie is a wine bottled directly from the tank or cask after having been aged, on its fine lees (yeast sediment) over the winter months. It is largely domaine bottled and, because it is handled very little, should retain its delicacy and freshness.
Describe the production process of Muscadet sur Lie. What region does it come from?
2) Muscadet Sevre et Maine sur Lie
Name 2 key wines from the Nantais?
3) Coteaux du Layon
Name 4 key wines from Anjou-Samur?
Name 4 key wines from Touraine?
Name 3 key wines from the Central Vineyards of the Loire?
Val de Loire IGP covers the entire Loire Valley.
What is the name of the IGP that covers the entire Loire Valley region?
1) Chenin Blanc
2) Cabernet Franc
Grolleau and Gamay are also seen in Anjou AC.
What are the 2 key grape varieties of Anjou AC? What other varieties are also seen in the region?
1) Chenin Blanc
2) Cabernet Franc
What are the key grape varieties of the Saumur AC?
A sweet wine made from Chenin Blanc; possessing a fresh fruit character and mouth-watering acidity. The alcohol is usually around 12-14% and botrytis can be present (to a greater or lesser extent) helping to add body and texture.
What type of wine comes from the Coteaux du Layon?
1) Quarts de Chaume AC
2) Bonnezeaux AC
What two sites have their own appellations within the Coteaux du Layon and rank among the world's greatest sweet wines?
Savennieres is produced from which grape variety?
Melon Blanc (aka Melon de Bourgogne, aka Muscadet)
What grape variety is used in the key AC wines from the Nantais?
What is the main grape variety in Sancerre?
What is the main grape variety in Menetou-Salon?
What is the main grape variety of Pouilly-Fume?
1) Sauvignon Blanc
2) Chenin Blanc
3) Cabernet Franc
What are the 5 main grape varieties in Touraine AC?
What is the main grape variety in Vouvray?
What is the main grape variety in the Chinon and Bourgueil ACs?
Located in southeast France, the Rhone Valley experiences two different climates. In the north, it is moderate to warm continental. In the south, it is warm Mediterranean.
What is the location and climate of the Rhone Valley?
The Mistral wind.
What environmental factor in the southern Rhone has a cooling effect but can also damage vines?
What is the only red grape variety permitted in the northern Rhone?
What are the 3 white grape varieties permitted in the northern Rhone?
What are the 4 main red grape varieties of the southern Rhone?
1) Grenache Blanc
What are the 2 main white grape varieties of the southern Rhone?
The valley is quite narrow and steep in the northern Rhone with the best vineyards planted on steep slopes with a south facing aspect located close to the river.
What is the topography of the northern Rhone? Where are the best vineyards located?
Where are vineyards planted on flatter terrain? In the northern or southern Rhone region?
Are the soils more varied in northern or southern Rhone?
For the most part, Grenache is bush trained and the shoots that hang down offer extra shade for the grapes in the hot, dry climate. The low training also offers protection from the Mistral wind and benefits from the warmth radiated from the soil. Syrah is susceptible to wind damage and benefits from the support offered by guyot pruning and wire or stake training.
What type of pruning method is used in the southern Rhone for Grenache? Is the same system employed for Syrah?
Unlike northern Rhone, the vineyards of the south have fewer slopes to protect the vines from the Mistral wind. These winds gain speed in this area and can cause extensive damage to the vineyards.
Why are windbreaks planted in the southern Rhone?
What is the most widely planted grape of the southern Rhone?
Yes, for the lighter styles of wine, carbonic maceration is used in the production of some red Cotes-du-Rhone wines of the south.
Is carbonic maceration employed in the Rhone Valley?
New oak is being used more and more in the northern Rhone. New oak has a tendency to overwhelm the more delicate flavors of Grenache and thus is not used as much in the southern Rhone.
Is new oak ever used in winemaking of Rhone valley wines?
1) Cote Rote (r)
2) Condrieu (w)
3) Saint Joseph (r/w)
4) Hermitage (r/w)
5) Crozes-Hermitage (r/w)
6) Cornas (r)
What are the 6 key wine regions of the northern Rhone (from north to south)?
1) Cotes du Rhone (r/w/rose)
2) Cotes du Rhone Villages (r/w/rose)
3) Vacqueyras (r)
4) Gigondas (r)
5) Chateauneuf-du-Pape (r/w)
6) Lirac (r/rose)
7) Tavel (rose)
What are the 7 key wine regions of the southern Rhone?
What is the only permitted red grape variety in Cote Rotie?
No, although only red wines can be produced in this region (from the Syrah grape), up to 20% Viognier is allowed to be co-fermented with Syrah.
Does Cote Rotie require 100% Syrah?
Wines from Condrieu must be made solely from what grape variety?
What is the red grape variety in Saint-Joseph?
What are the 2 white grape varieties permitted in Saint-Joseph?
What is the red grape variety permitted in Crozes-Hermitage?
What are the 2 white grape varieties permitted in Crozes-Hermitage?
What is the red grape variety of Hermitage?
What are the 2 white grape varieties permitted in Hermitage?
What is/are the red grape variety(ies) permitted in Cornas?
Chateau Grillet AC is a single property enclave within Condrieu producing white wines made solely from Viognier.
What Rhone valley region does Chateau Grillet AC fall under? What types of wines does it produce?
Red Hermitage; the greatest of these may last for 50 years or more.
Which red wine is considered to be the fullest bodied of the northern Rhone reds and is known to age well?
What is the most important region of the northern Rhone in terms of volume?
Which region of the northern Rhone can only produce wines made from 100% Syrah?
1) Cote Rotie
What are the three most expensive regions in the northern Rhone?
What are the 3 main red grape varieties in Cotes-du-Rhone?
2) Grenache Blanc
What are the 2 main white grape varieties in Cotes-du-Rhone Villages?
Cotes-du-Rhone AC accounts for more than half of the entire production of the Rhone Valley, most of which is red wine.
What appellation in the Rhone Valley is responsible for more than half of the entire production of the region?
What are the 2 main grape varieties used for rosé in Cotes-du-Rhone, Cotes-du-Rhone Villages, Lirac, and Tavel?
What is the main grape variety of Vacqueyras and Gigondas?
Yes, they are allowed to use Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsault, and others. They are made in a similar full-bodied, spicy style of Chateauneuf du Pape.
Are Vacqueyras and Gigondas allowed to use grape varieties other than Grenache in the production of their red wines?
What is the main red grape variety of Chateauneuf-du-Pape?
Which two southern Rhone crus are located on the west bank of the Rhone river?
Tavel which uses Cinsault and Grenache mainly in their roses (other grapes are allowed).
Which key region of the southern Rhone can only produce rose wines? What are the 2 grape varieties mainly used?
Warm Mediterranean (mitigated by altitude)
What is the climate of southern France?
True or False: Southern France has the largest vineyard area in France.
Red varieties account for well over 75% of plantings in southern France.
Does southern France have more plantings dedicated to red or white grapes?
What are the top three red grape varieties grown in southern France?
2) Sauvignon Blanc
What are the top two white varieties planted in southern France?
1) Languedoc 2) Roussillon
What are the three main regions that make up southern France?
What area lies east of the Rhone and extends to the Italian border?
Languedoc and Roussillon
What areas lie west of the Rhone and extends to the Spanish border?
What two environmental factors can have a cooling influence but, can also damage the vines of southern France?
Vineyards planted inland in the foothills are noticeably cooler and have less fertile, well-drained soils that better suit quality viticulture.
Where are the best vineyards of southern France located?
What is the biggest viticultural challenge in southern France?
False; fungal disease is less of a problem in southern France than anywhere else in the country. (dry conditions)
True or False? Fungal disease is very prevalent in southern France.
True; nevertheless, it continues to be in a state of flux. Producers who have been able to invest in modern equipment and techniques have achieved a dramatic increase in quality.
True or False? The focus of production in the south of France has long since moved from large volumes of poor quality Vin de Table to higher quality Vin de Pays (IGP) and AC wines.
Varied, and broken up by many prominent ranges of hills which offer protection from the Mistral.
Describe the landscape of Provence.
Cotes de Provence
Which is the largest appellation in Provence?
What AC in southern France produces premium full-bodied red wines based on the Mourvedre grape?
1) Languedoc AC (r/w/rose)
2) Minervois AC (r/w/rose)
3) Corbieres AC (r/w/rose)
4) Fitou AC (r)
5) Cotes du Roussillon AC (r/w/rose)
6) Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC (r)
7) Pays d'Oc IGP (r/w/rose) 8)Picpoul de Pinet (w)
What are the 8 key wine regions of Languedoc and Roussillon?
What are the 4 main red grape varieties of Languedoc AC?
Full-bodied with concentrated spicy red fruits with oak flavors.
Describe the attributes of the best red wines of the Languedoc AC.
True. Languedoc AC is a generic appellation that covers all vineyards from the Spanish border to Nimes which includes both the Languedoc and Roussillon.
True or false: Wines made in Roussillon can be labelled under the with the generic appellation of Languedoc AC.
Aude, Herault and Gard
What majority of the wines from the south of France come from what 3 departments?
1) Carignan 2)Grenache 3) Syrah 4) Mourvedre
What are the 4 main red grape varieties of Corbieres AC?
Both. The region is sub-divided into 11 sub-regions, the best of which is Boutenac AC.
Does Corbieres cover warm sites near the coast or vineyards planted at altitude?
This is a red wine appellation only.
What are the four main grape varieties of Fitou AC?
1) wider range of grape varieties allowed
2) varietal labelling
3) warm, sunny climate allowing for large volumes of ripe, fruity wines
What contributes to the success of IGP Pays d'Oc wines?
1) muscat 2) grenache blanc
What are the most widely planted LOCAL white varieties of Southern France?
What is the climate of Germany?
1) Spring frosts
2) Summer rain
What two environmental factors can cause problems in Germany?
Yes, humidity in the autumn can help promote noble rot.
Does Germany have the weather conditions necessary for the development noble rot?
Conditions can vary considerably from year to year in Germany.
In Germany, are weather patterns typically consistent or varied from year to year?
Germany has a long cool ripening period which gives grapes time to develop a good level of natural sugar while retaining their acidity.
Does Germany have a long or short ripening season? How does this impact the flavor profile of the grapes?
The best Einzellagen (single vineyards) lie close to the river and are planted on very steep slopes with a south facing aspect. Stony slate soils play a vital role in storing and radiating heat back up to the vine, extending ripening. These soils are also well draining .
In the Mosel, where are the best Einzellagen located? What type of soil do they have?
White grapes account for more plantings. Largely because of the climate, white grapes account for just over 60% of the plantings in Germany.
In Germany, do white or red grape varieties account for more plantings?
2) Muller-Thurgau (Rivaner)
In Germany, which two grape varieties account for well over half of all white plantings?
In Germany, what is a synonym for Muller-Thurgau?
Which grape variety is a cross between Riesling and Madeleine Royal?
What are the top 5 white grape varieties in Germany?
Pinot Gris (and Ruländer)
What is a synonym for Grauburgunder?
What is a synonym for Weissburgunder?
1) Spätburgunder (Pinot Noir)
What are the top 2 red grape varieties of Germany?
What is a synonym for Spätburgunder?
The best vineyard sites are often located on very steep south facing slopes in the proximity of a river.
Where are the best vineyards of Germany located?
Grapes for different Pradikatswein are picked at different levels of sugar ripeness and/or botrytis infection. Often the vineyard workers will do up to seven selective pickings for the different quality levels of each vintage.
Why is harvesting in Germany a protracted process?
Name the 7 key wine regions of Germany from north to south?
Riesling is the most widely planted variety, and it can be made in a style that lies in between that of the Mosel and the fuller bodied Rhine wines. They have the pronounced acidity of the Mosel, yet they can have a slightly riper fruit character as the climate here is warmer.
What is the key village of the Nahe? What type of wines is produced her?
Riesling dominates plantings and more than 80% the wines are made in a dry style. They have a medium to full body w/ a ripe peach character. Humid conditions generated by the Rhine means that some of Germany's best BA and TBA wines are made here too.
What are the 3 key villages in the Rheingau? What type of wines are produced here?
What is Germany's largest vine-growing region?
Nierstein in Germany.
These vineyards are often referred to as the Rheinterrasse and produce some of the fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
What is the key village of the Rheinhessen? What are the vineyards often referred to as? What type of wines are produced?
Riesling is the most widely planted grape, and the style here is ripe and fuller bodied. Muller-Thurgau is grown and plantings of Grauburgunder and Weissburgunder are increasing. Dornfelder is the second most planted grape (of either color) with other black plantings including: Portugieser and Spatburgunder.
What are the 2 key villages of the Pfalz? What type of wines are produced here?
An extinct volcano, the vineyards are on south-facing slopes and make the most of the available warmth. The area has built up a reputation for top quality Spätburgunder.
What is the key village of Baden? What is the top quality wine of the region?
Silvaner can achieve a concentration in Franken that is rarely achieved elsewhere in Germany. Silvaner and Müller-Thurgau are the most widely planted as Riesling used to struggle to ripen well here.
What is the key village of Franken? What type of wines are produced here?
The Mittelrhein produces light bodied dry Rieslings in the Ahr region.
What type of wines does the Mittelrhein produce? In what region is it found?
1) Pfalz 2) Baden
In which two regions is spätburgunder particularly important in Germany?
What are the 6 levels ripeness (from lowest to highest) of Germany's Prädikatswein?
1) Grapes must be grown exclusively in one of the 13 Anbaugebiete/region (blending regions is forbidden)
2) Label must show the region it comes from
3) Label must give an indication of style
What are the 3 requirements of a German QbA wine?
1) QbA minimum permitted must weights are lower than those required for Prädikatswein
2) QbA wines are allowed to undergo must enrichment; Prädikatsweins are not (although they can be sweetened with Süssreserve).
3) Prädikatswein must come from a single Anbaugebiet as well as a single Bereich (a district) within that Anbaugebiet) whereas QbA must come from a single Anbaugebiet only.
What are 3 key differences between QbA and Prädikatswein?
What is the name of the German PGI wine category?
The term for a wine without a G.I. in Germany (replacing Deutscher Tafelwein) allowing for blending across Germany. Some large-volume, inexpensive export brands fall into this category.
What is Deutscher Wein?
A district within a German Anbaugebiet
A group of vineyards in Germany
A single vineyard in Germany
German term for "dry"
German term for "off-dry"
No, the vast majority of wines produced in Germany are PDO wines.
Are the vast majority of wines produced in Germany labelled Landwein?
The berries, not the wine, are dry; they are so affected with botrytis that the berries are shrivelled.
If Germany's Trockenbeerenauslese wines must be sweet, why is the word trocken, which means dry, in the name of the wine?
A term used in the Rheingau to refer to the dry wines made from Erste Lage sites. In all other areas, these dry wines from Erste Lage sites are known as "Grosses Gewächs".
Define "Erstes Gewächs"
The best vineyard sites defined by the VPD (a prestigious association of self-elected best producers throughout Germany).
Define "Erste Lage"
What is the climate of Austria?
In Germany, Kabinett is a Prädikatswein; however, it Austria, it is a Qualitätswein.
In Germany, is a Kabinett wine a Qualitätswein or Prädikatswein? What about in Austria?
The more northerly regions can experience cooling northerly winds whereas those closest to the Hungarian border are warmed by the easterly winds. These help contribute to the wide variations of temperature throughout the day.
Why are many areas of Austria marked with a high diurnal range?
Long; because of this, noble rot is possible if humidity levels are sufficient.
Is the autumn ripening season of Austria short or long?
What is the most widely planted red grape variety in Austria?
What red grape variety is a cross between Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent?
1) Grüner Veltliner
What are the 3 key white grape varieties in Austria?
3) St. Laurent
What are the 3 key red grape varieties in Austria?
On steep south facing slopes.
Where are Austria's best vineyards planted?
The flat low-lying vineyards around the Neusiedlersee experience regular and heavy botrytis infection.
What area of Austria is capable of consistently producing botrytis affected wines?
For white wines, there is some use; however, the focus is on the purity of fruit. For premium red wines , oak is often used.
Is oak often used in Austrian winemaking?
Mittelburgenland is a DAC for what grape variety?
1) Wachau (w)
2) Weinviertel (w)
What are the 2 key wines of the Neiderösterreich?
The regions reside in Niederösterreich and produce white wines from:
1) Grüner Veltliner
What are the 2 main grape varieties used in Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal wines? What region do they reside in?
Located in the Niederösterreich of Austria
What is the main grape variety in Weinviertel?
1) Niederösterreich 2) Burgenland 3) Steiermark 4) Wien
What are the names of what are called the four federal states of Austria for PDO wines?
Weinviertel DAC for Grüner Veltlinter.
Which DAC was the first in Austria?
What two Prädikatswein categories are recognized in Austria but not Germany?
A Prädikatswein category of Austria. It is situated between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese in requirements, which makes it a sweet dessert wine typically made from grapes affected by noble rot.
What is Ausbruch?
Strohwein or Schilfwein is an Austrian wine term in the Prädikatswein category which designates a straw wine, a sweet dessert wine made from raisin-like dried grapes. Stroh is German for straw, while Schilf means reed.
What is Strohwein?
A category developed by Austria to capture the concept of regional styles. If the producers in one of the specified appellations can agree on (1) a grape variety (or varieties), (11) a style of wine that best expresses their region, and (111) a set of regulations, then it can be awarded DAC status.
What is the Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)?
Which of Austria's subregions has chosen not to become a DAC but instead has its own classification system?
What are PGI wines referred to as in Austria?
What are wines without a geographical indication referred to as in Austria?
What is the climate of Hungary?
The best vineyards have a southerly aspect and are located on slopes.
Where can the best vineyards in Hungary be found?
3) Sarga Muscotaly (Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains)
What 3 grape varieties are used for the sweet Tokaji wines of Hungary?
Furmint makes concentrated, high acid white wines with flavors of apples when young, developing into nuts and honey as they age. It makes premium dry white wines but is late ripening and susceptible to botrytis--both of which make it a principal grape variety used for sweet Aszú wines.
Describe the taste profile of Furmint.
Sarga Muscotaly (Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains)
Which grape variety is aromatic, with flavors of orange blossom, and is the 3rd most important variety used for Tokaji wines?
120 g/l; a figure that was raised in 2013, causing the discontinuance of 3 and 4 puttonyos categories.
What is the minimum residual sugar level for Tokaji Aszú wines?
No, the category Aszú Eszencia was abolished in 2013, but Tokaji Eszencia still exists for wines made from the free run juice of aszú berries.
Has the wine category Tokaji Eszencia been abolished with the revised laws in 2013?
Blaufränkisch which produces wines with medium tannins, high acidity and a peppery, sour cherry flavor.
Which of Austria's black grapes is the most highly regarded?
Bodrog and Tisza
What are the names of the two rivers in Tokaj which help generate morning humidity necessary for noble rot?
Germany and Austria
Which two countries base their top PDO wines on ripeness of the grapes at harvest?
Winemakers start with a base wine using the same grapes as for Tokaji Aszú. Before, during or after fermentation, the aszú berries are macerated in the base wine for 12-60 hours. The mixture is then pressed and the wine matured in oak for a period of time.
Describe the winemaking process of Tokaji Aszú.
Wines made from late harvest grapes, although some may be affected by botrytis. When noble rot is present, the botrytized grapes are fermented rather than macerated as with Tokaji Aszú.
What might you expect from a modern style of Tokaji wine?
3) Healthy grapes (unaffected by noble rot)
When harvesting for Tokaji, which 3 categories do pickers separate the grapes into?
"Rotten" used to describe grapes affected by noble rot.
What does "Aszu" translate to?
"As it comes" referring to Tokaji selection. If only a few berries in a bunch are affected by botrytis, the whole bunch is picked and used to create a partial botrytis style wine.
What does "Szamorodni" translate to?
Furmint (as it is the most widely planted)
What is the most common grape variety used to make non-botrytis dry wines of Hungary?
It must be aged in cask for a minimum of one year and be two years old before release.
Tokaji Szamorodni must be aged for how long?
Yes, they are aged for a period of time in oak. The new laws in 2013 require shorter aging: minimum 18 months in oak, and the wines can be released in the January of the third year after harvest.
Do Tokaji Aszu wines see oak aging?
It is still essential to be aware of wines made to the traditional laws (vintages up to and including 2012) since they will be on the market for many years.
If the Tokaji sweet wine laws have changed with the 2013 laws, why would a certified wine student need to know about the traditional laws that were replaced?
Classic Tokaji is deep amber, with high acidity and intense aromas, and flavors of orange peel. apricots, and honey. The best wines have further complexities that hint at rye bread, smoke, and caramel.
What is the color and taste profile of classic Tokaji Aszu?
Tokaji Eszencia; even after all the time it takes to ferment, the wines remain very low in alcohol (usually less than 5%)
Which Hungarian wine has a must that is so sweet, it can take years to ferment?
5 puttonyos = 120 g/L
6 puttonyos = 150 g/L
What are the minimum levels of residual sugar for each puttonyos level?
What is the climate of Greece?
Drought is of particular concern of eastern Greece as it lies in the rain shadow of the mountains and thus little water is available for irrigation.
What is the main environmental concern of Greece? Is this more of a concern on the eastern or western side of Greece?
Santorini has what type of soils?
What are the top 2 red grape varieties in Greece?
Which red grape variety of Greece is often compared to Nebbiolo?
High in tannin and acid and with a medium color that quickly fades to tawny. They tend to lack a significant fresh fruit aroma even in their youth. As with Nebbiolo, they are long lived and can develop complex spice and early aromas with age.
Describe the taste profile of Xinomavro.
In Greece, which red grape is best suited for rose production?
In Greece, what is the key white grape variety?
Appellation d'origine de qualité supérieure.
In addition to PDO, what other term may be seen on Greek labels for wines for export?
Nemea falls into what bigger area of Greece?
OPAP; though used principally for dry wines, it can also be used for sweet and sparkling wines as well.
In which of Greece's top red wines would you find these characteristics: deep ruby color, high but smooth tannins, low to moderate acidity, sweet spice and red fruit flavors.
Santorini is extremely windy so a unique training method is employed: the permanent wood is trained in a low, basket weave shape to protect the grapes grown on the inside.
What major climate condition would you expect to find on Santorini which effects the way the vines are trained?
1) Naoussa (Macedonia)
2) Nemea (Peloponnese)
3) Santorini (Island)
What are the 3 key OPAP wine regions?
What is the grape variety used exclusively in the wines of Naoussa OPAP?
What is the grape variety used exclusively in the wines of Nemea OPAP?
Which OPAP covers red and white wines made in dry and sweet styles but has a reputation founded on wines principally made from Assyrtiko?
Which Greek grape variety is used to make dry wines with perfumed aromas and concentrated flavors of ripe citrus and stone fruit balanced by naturally high acidity?
Which OPAP requires that 85% of grapes be Moschofilero to make their wines?
Which wine category is principally used to accommodate the ancient wine style Retsina?
It is unlike any other PGI wine as it deals with a style of wine that can be made anywhere in Greece, Retsina.
Why is OKP unlike any other PGI wine?
Retsina is a white wine
What 2 grape varieties are used to produce Retsina? Is the wine red or white?
Retsina is made from the Savatiano and Roditis grape varieties. Pine resin is drawn from local trees and added to the wine when it is young. The resin is removed at the first racking, by which time the wine has acquired its distinct character.
How is Retsina produced?
In sites cooled by altitude or proximity to the sea.
Where are the best vineyards in Greece located?
Most vineyards in Greece are spur pruned and head trained, this helps offer the grapes some protection from the summer heat. However, many forward-looking producers are switching to cordon trained VSP.
What vine training system is employed by most vineyards in Greece? Why?
In Santorini, the wind is unyielding and requires a unique training method to protect the vine. The permanent wood is trained very low into a basket shape, and the fruit grows on the inside. The vines are sometimes planted in small hollows to provide extra protection from the wind and help ensure the vines make the best use of the very limited rainfall.
What vine training system is employed in Santorini? Why?
True or False? Wines in Greece are often labelled in other languages to accommodate export market consumers unfamiliar with the Greek alphabet.
Mediterranean; cooler in the north and hot in the south.
What is the climate of Italy?
Pergola : canopy trained high to protect grapes from sunburn and allow air circulation.
What is the name of the complex trellising system that was traditionally used in northern Italy?
What is the main weather related threat to Piemonte and the Veneto?
Marine soil = Clay over limestone mix (also seen in Burgundy) is responsible for most of Italy's enduring reds including Valpolicella, Barolo, Barbaresco, and Chianti. White varieties such as Cortese, Verdicchio, and the aromatic whites of Trentino also thrive in limestone rich soils.
Describe the marine soils of Italy. What Italian grape varieties favor this soil type?
1) Soave DOCG
2) Colli Euganei DOCG
3) Lacryma Christi DOCG
4) Etna DOCG
Which 4 DOCGs are situation on the slopes of ancient volcanoes; taking advantage of the volcanic soils present?
the Apennine Mountains
What mountain range runs the length of the Italian Peninsula?
1) Piave DOC
2) Aquilei DOC
3) Isonzo DOC
Which 3 DOCs lie on the broad plain north of the Adriatic and enjoy alluvial soils?
Grape growing in Italy is centered around hillside locations. The Romans planted exclusively on slopes and today, with the exception of areas of the Po River plains, southern Puglia, the Maremma and southern Sicily, Italian viticulture is still defined by its mountains.
Are Italian vineyards mainly located on hills or in valleys?
High trained pergola vines are less widespread now as the best producers look to limit yields and improve levels of ripeness, particularly physiological, as so many of the native Italian black grapes are high in tannin.
Is the high trellising system known as "pergola" becoming increasingly or less widespread in Italy? Why or why not?
Alberello is the Italian word for bush-trained. Southern Puglia and Sicily both employ the alberello approach and with spectacular results.
Define "alberello" vineyards
Most of Italy uses some variation of classic, two wire vertical shoot positioning (VSP) trellising, including both single and double replacement cane and cordone speronato (single cordon).
What vine training system is used throughout most of Italy?
Italy has a long tradition of making wines from dried grapes (picked and dried off of the vine) as the usually dry autumns discourage noble rot. This process is known as "passito".
What is the passito winemaking process?
Dry = Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG
Sweet = Recioto della Valpolicella DOCG
What is an example of a dry passito wine? What is an example of a sweet passito wine?
Traditional red winemaking involved long periods of maturation in large old wood casks called "botte". These wines could have a marked oxidative character.
What were Italian red wines traditionally aged in?
1) Barolo DOCG
2) Barbaresco DOCG
4) Barbera d'Asti DOC
5) Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
6) Dogliani DOCG
7) Roero DOCG
8) Roero Arneis DOCG
9) Gavi DOCG
What are the 9 key wine regions of Piemonte?
1) Roero Arneis DOCG - Arneis
2) Gavi DOCG - Cortese
What 2 key wine regions of Piemonte only produce white wines? What is the key grape variety in each?
1) Barolo DOCG
2) Barbaresco DOCG
4) Roero DOCG
What 4 key wine regions of Piemonte produce wines from Nebbiolo?
Barbera d'Asti DOCG
Which key DOCG wine region of Piemonte produces wine from Barbera?
1) Dolcetto d'Alba DOC
2) Dogliani DOCG
Which 2 key wine regions of Piemonte produce wine from Dolcetto?
1) Alto Adige (Südtirol)
What are the 2 key wine regions of Trentino-Alto Adige?
Alto Adige (Südtirol)
Which Italian region has the highest proportion of DOC production in Italy?
What are the 2 main red grape varieties in Alto Adige?
What are the 2 main white grape varieties in Alto Adige?
What is the key red grape variety in Trentino?
What is the key white grape variety in Trentino?
Grave del Friuli DOC
Which DOC is the most important in terms of quantity in the Fruili-Venezia Giulia?
Grave del Friuli DOC
Which DOC makes light Bordeaux blends from Refosco, Merlot, Cab Franc, and Cab Sav?
1) Friuli Grave
What are the 2 key wine regions in Friuli-Venezia Giulia?
1) Tocai Friulano
2) Pinot Gris
What are the 2 main grape varieties of Collio? Do they make red or white wines?
1) Tocai Friulano
2) Pinot Gris
What are the 2 main white grape varieties of Friuli Grave?
1) Valpoicella DOC (r)
2) Amarone della Valpolicella DOCG (r)
3) Recioto della Valpolicella DOCG (r)
4) Soave DOC (w)
5) Bardolino DOC (r/rose)
6) Veneto IGT (r)
What are the 6 key wine regions of the Veneto?
What are the 3 grape varieties used in the production of Valpolicella?
What is the grape variety used in the production of Soave?
What are the 3 grape varieties used in the production of Bardolino?
What are the 2 main grape varieties used in Veneto IGT?
1) Bolgheri DOC
2) Brunello di Montalcino DOCG
3) Chianti DOCG
4) Chianti Classico DOCG
5) Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG
6) Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG
7) Toscana IGT
What are the 7 key wine regions of Tuscany?
1) Bolgheri DOC
2) Montecucco DOC
3) Val di Cornia DOC
Which 3 DOCs create Super Tuscans?
What is the main grape variety in Chianti DOCG, Brunello di Montalcino DOCG, and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG?
What is the main grape variety of Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOCG?
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 3 main grape varieties in Toscana IGT?
1) Conero DOCG
2) Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC
What are the 2 key wine regions of Marche?
Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi DOC
Which wine region claims the lion's share of production in Marche?
1) Conero DOCG
2) Rosso Piceno DOC
What 2 DOCs in Marche are based of the Montepulciano grape variety?
Rosso Piceno DOC
Which DOC in Marche is allowed to use a little Sangiovese in it's Montepulciano based wine?
What is the key wine denomination of Umbria?
Which Italian DOC straddles the Umbria/Lazio border and produces inexpensive wines from Grechetto blended with Trebbiano and Malvasia?
What is Trebbiano known as in Umbria?
What is the key wine region of Lazio?
The Malvasia gives the wine a citrus aspect. The Trebbiano is more delicately flavored with floral notes that add a striking acidity to the wine, but not much flavor.
What are the 2 main grape varieties of Frascati DOC?
What are the 4 main grape varieties of Orvieto DOC?
1) Montepulciano d'Abruzzo DOC
2) Trebbiano d'Abruzzo DOC
What are the 2 key wines of Abruzzo?
What is the key wine region of Campania?
What is the main grape variety in Taurasi DOCG? Is it red or white?
What wine region produces "The Barolo of the South", is high in tannins and acidity, and must be aged for 3 years before its release?
1) Salice Salentino DOC (r)
2) Copertino DOC (r)
3) Puglia IGT (r)
What are the 3 key wine regions of Puglia?
2) Malvasia Nera
What are the 2 main grape varieties in Salice Salentino DOC?
Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG
Which wine is Umbria's most prestigious red?
What are the 2 main grape varieties of Puglia IGT?
1) Salice Salentino DOC
2) Copertino DOC
Which 2 Italian DOCs produce wines of almost Port-like medicinal intensity based on a blend of Negroamaro and Malvasia Nera?
Aglianico del Vulture DOC
This region produces red wines from the Aglianico grape.
What is the key wine region of Basilicata? Does it produce red or white wines?
What is the key PGI wine region of Sicily?
What are the 2 main white grape varieties of Sicily?
1) Nero d'Avola
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 3 main red grape varieties of Sicily?
In which Sicilian DOC are you most likely to find blends made from Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio?
1) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)
2) Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)
What are the 2 categories of PDO wines in Italy?
Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
What is the PGI category in Italy?
What term is used to define Italian wine without any geographical indication?
Classico acknowledges wines made from the original zone before a region's boundaries were expanded, and many of the best wines of a region come from the Classico zone. Used in numerous regions including Chianti Classico, Soave Classico, and Valpolicella Classico.
What does "classico" mean in Italian winemaking?
A much abused term that implies better quality and requires both higher alcohol and longer aging.
In Italy, each Italian wine region has a different definition of a Riserva wine. Most wines will be aged a minimum of 2 years to be labeled this way. On the higher end of the spectrum, Amarone is aged for 4 years and Barolo must be aged over 5 years before leaving the cellar.
What does "riserva" mean in Italian winemaking?
Varied, the northwest area of Spain is moderate maritime. The east coast is warm/hot Mediterranean and the center of Spain is hot continental.
What is the climate of Spain?
What is the climate like in northwest Spain?
What is the climate of northwest Spain?
What is the climate of east Spain?
Semi carbonic maceration, and often without any oak influence
What production method is used to make many inexpensive Spanish reds?
For such a warm country and being internationally famous for its red wines, it is surprising that white grape varieties account for the majority of plantings in Spain.
Do white or red grapes account for the majority of plantings in Spain?
The white grape Airen is the most planted variety in Spain. It is one of the few varieties that can withstand the extreme heat and drought conditions of the Meseta. Much of its output is used in the production of Brandy de Jerez.
What is the most widely planted grape in Spain?
The Meseta, a large plateau, where altitude moderates the heat with cool night time temperatures.
In addition to any coastal influence, what is another important topographical feature influencing fine wine production in Spain?
Which country has the largest area planted to vine in the world?
False; although Spain does have the largest area under vine of any country, it is 3rd in terms of volume of wine produced.
True or False? Spain has the largest area under vine of any country in the world and is 1st in terms of volume of wine produced.
With the exception of north-west Spain, heat and lack of water is the biggest viticultural challenge.
What is the biggest viticultural challenge faced in Spain?
As heat and lack of water are the biggest viticultural challenges in Spain, low density, bush trained vineyards are the best way to maximize the amount of water available and shade the fruit from excessive heat.
How are vines typically trained in Spain? Why?
When was irrigation legalized in Spain?
Yes, wire training is slowly being introduced to facilitate machine harvesting in Spain.
Is machine harvesting possible in Spain?
In the vineyard, harvesting is done at night or early morning; and in the cellar, fermentation is temperature controlled stainless steel vessels. These both help retain the fresh, fruity character of the white wines.
What two human influences (one in the vineyard and one in the cellar) are being done to help produce fresh, fruity white wines in Spain?
1) Rioja DOCa
2) Navarra DO
What are the 4 key wine regions of the Upper Ebro?
Carinena and Calatayud are the 2 key wine regions of the Upper Ebro that only produce red wines. They use:
What 2 wine regions of the Upper Ebro only produce red wines? What 2 grape varieties are used?
What are the 4 main red grape varieties of Rioja DOCa?
3) Garnacha Blanca
What are the 3 main white grape varieties of Rioja DOCa?
3) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 4 main red grape varieties of Navarra DO?
What is the main grape variety used in the roses of Navarra DO?
1) Catalunya DO
2) Penedes DO
3) Priorat DOC
What are the 3 key wine regions of Catalunya?
True or False? The Catalunya DO covers the entire Catalunya region.
Priorat; llicorella soil consists of layers of red slate with small particles of mica that sparkle in the sun. They help ripening by retaining warmth and, though they are very low in nutrients, because of their depth they can retain sufficient water throughout the growing season.
Which area of Spain benefits from llicorella soil? Describe the soil type.
What are the top 3 white grape varieties of Catalunya?
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the top 2 red grape varieties of Catalunya?
What is the most widely planted red grape in Spain?
Which region in Catalunya is known for its llicorella soils?
3) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 3 main grape varieties in Priorat DOC?
3) Sauvignon Blanc
Penedes used to be known for its production of Cava (using the local trio of Parellada, Xarel-lo, and Macabeo); however, the Torres company has led the way in planting many new, international varieties including those listed above as well as Gewurztraminer.
What are the 3 main white grape varieties in Penedes DO?
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
3) Pinot Noir
What are the top 3 red grape varieties in Penedes DO?
1) Ribera del Duero DO
2) Rueda DO
3) Toro DO
4) VdiT Castilla y Leon
What are the 4 key wine regions of the Duero Valley?
2) Ribera del Duero
Both DOs produce red wines made from Tempranillo (aka Tinto Fino).
Which 2 key wine regions of the Duero Valley only produce red wines? What grape variety is used?
1) Verdejo - white
2) Sauvignon Blanc - white
What are the 2 main grape varieties used in Rueda DO? Are they red or white?
A clone of Tempranillo found in the Ribera del Duero region of Spain.
What is Tinto Fino?
As it is located within the Duero Valley, it is most likely to be produced from Tempranillo.
What red grape variety is most likely used to produce VdIT Castilla y Leon?
1) Rias Baixas DO
2) Bierzo DO
What are the 2 key wine regions of northwest Spain?
Which DO in northwest Spain is red only and produced from the Mencia grape?
Rias Baixas DO
Which DO in north west Spain is white only and produced from the Albarino grape?
Which 3 key wine regions are found in the Levante?
Jumilla and Yecla produces red wines from Monastrell.
Which 2 key wines from the Levante are red only? What grape variety is used to produce them?
On the Mediterranean coast of Spain, south of Catalunya.
Where is the Levante region located?
The vast central stretch of the Meseta that lies south of Madrid; known as Castilla-La Mancha.
Where does almost half of Spain's total wine production come from?
Which is the largest DO in Spain?
What is tempranillo known as in La Mancha?
1) La Mancha DO
2) Valdepenas DO
3) Vinos de Pago
4) VdlT de Castilla
What are the 4 key wine regions of Castilla-La Mancha?
2) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the 3 main red grape varieties in La Mancha DO?
What is the main grape variety in Valdepenas DO?
1) Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
2) Denominacion de Origen (DO) 3) Vinos de Pago (VP)
What are the main 3 categories of PDO wine in Spain?
DOs of at least 10 years standing may apply for this more prestigious category.
When does a DO wine region qualify for DOCa status in Spain?
What are the only 2 DOCa wine regions?
This category was created in 2003 and applies to single estates with high reputations. It previously operated outside of wine categories by focusing on international grape varieties, but in theory, can be awarded to producers who have operated within the DO system.
What does the Vinos de Pago (VP) category mean? When was it created?
Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica (VCIG)
Which PDO category was introduced in 2003 to act as a stepping stone between VdlT and DO?
As soon as a region has held VCIG status for five years, they may apply for DO status.
When will a Spanish region be able to apply for DO status?
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)
What are PGI wines referred to as in Spain?
What term is used for wines in Spain without any geographical indication?
No time required in casks and the wine is bottled the year following the vintage for immediate release. That goes for red, white, and rose wines.
What are the red and white wine aging requirements for "joven" wine in Spain?
Red = 6 months in cask, 24 months total (2 years)
White = 0 in casks, 18 months total
For Ribera del Duero, red wine must spend 12 months in cask.
What are the red and white wine aging requirements for "crianza" wine in Spain? Which region poses an exception?
Red = 12 months in cask, 36 months total (3 years)
White = 6 months in cask, 18 months total
What are the red and white wine aging requirements for "reserva" wine in Spain?
Red = 18 months in cask, 60 months total (5 years)
White = 6 months in cask, 48 months total (4 years)
For Ribera del Duero, 24 months are required in cask for red wines. 12 months is required in cask for white.
What are the red and white wine aging requirements for "gran reserva" wine in Spain? Which region poses an exception?
Near the coast, Portugal experiences a warm maritime climate. Inland, it is warm-hot continental.
What is the climate of Portugal?
In which Portuguese region are you most likely to find the Baga grape?
1) Vinho Verde DOC (w)
2) Douro DOC (r)
3) Dao DOC (r/w)
4) Bairrada DOC (r)
What are the 4 key DOCs of Northern Portugal?
What are the 5 key grape varieties of Vinho Verde DOC?
1) Touriga Nacional
2) Touriga Franca
3) Tinta Roriz
What are the 3 key grape varieties of Douro DOC?
1) Touriga Nacional
2) Tinta Roriz
What are the 4 key red grape varieties of Dao DOC?
What are the 3 key white grape varieties of Dao DOC?
2) Touriga Nacional
What are the 4 key grape varieties of Bairrada DOC?
Which is Portugal's finest grape variety; giving low yeilds of wines with intense color, flavors, and high levels of tannin?
What grape variety is known as Aragones in southern Portugal and Tempranillo in Spain?
Vinho Regional Alentejano
What is the name of the Vinho Regional of Alentejo?
In which Portuguese region would you most likely find a blend of Aragones, Trincadeira and Alicante Bouschet?
Trincaderia is capable of producing complex fruity, spicy red wines with high levels of color and tannin.
Describe the taste profile of a wine made from Trincaderia.
Which grape variety is very good at retaining acidity during ripening (even in hot conditions), produces semi-aromatic, fresh, fruity wines and produces it's finest wines in Bucelas DOC?
Rainfall, with an average of 1200 millimeters (47 inches)
What is the most significant environmental feature of the Vinho Verde?
1) IGP Lisboa
2) IGP Tejo
What are the 2 key PGI wine regions of Central Portugal?
3) Touriga nacional
What aer the 3 main red grape varieties of IGP Tejo?
What was IGP Lisboa formerly known as?
The red wines are made in a modern style from low yielding vineyards to produce fruit driven wines, deep in color and fresh, with medium to high natural acidity. The whites are defined as "lively and elegent."
What style of wines are produced in IGP Lisboa?
1) IGP Peninsula de Setubal
2) Alentejo DOC
3) IGP Alentejano
What are the 3 key wine regions of Southern Portugal?
Which region in Portugal was formerly known as "Vinho Regional Ribatejano"?
3) Alvarinho (Albarino in Spain)
Which 3 white grape varieties are used in the production of the light-bodied, crisp, fresh wines of the Minho region in northern Portugal?
Denominacao de Origem Protegida (DOP) but the traditional term, Denominacao de Origem Controlada (DOC), is also registerd with the EU and can be used.
What is the name for a PDO wine in Portugal?
Indicacao Geografica Protegida (IGP) but the traditional term Vinho Regional is also registered with the EU and can be used.
What is the name for a PGI wine in Portugal?
Yes, they are recognized as traditional terms and may be used as a quality indicator for Portuguese wines.
Are the Portuguese terms "reserva" and "garrafeira" recognized by the EU?
1) Must be a DOC wine
2) Must be a vintage wine with distinctive organoleptic characteristics (accurately reflects the characteristics of the grape variety used)
3) Alcohol strength must exceed the legal minimum by at least .5%
4) Must be packaged in glass bottles.
What are the 4 qualifications for a "reserva" wine in Portugal?
1) Must have a geographical indication (DOC and IGP wines)
2) Must be vintage wines with distinctive organoleptic characteristics (accurately reflects the characteristics of the grape variety used)
3) Red Garrafeira wines require a minimum aging of 30 months; 12 of which is in glass bottles. White and rose Garrafeira wines require twelve months, of which at least 6 are in glass bottles.
What are the 3 qualifications for a "garrafeira" wine in Portugal?
Warm Mediterranean, cooler and wetter in the south; rainfall dramatically increasing during El Nino years.
Generally speaking, what type of climate does Chile experience?
The Humbolt Current
What is the cold air current that flows up from Antartica and flows along the coast of Chile?
Little vintage variation in Chile except in El Nino years when rainfall can rise.
Does Chile experience heavy vintage variation?
1) Cabernet Sauvignon (most widely planted; accounting for nearly half of all black varieties)
5) Pinot Noir
What are the top 5 red grapes of Chile? Which is the most widely planted?
1) Sauvignon Blanc
3) Muscat of Alexandria (mostly used for the production of grape distillate Pisco)
What are the top 3 white grape varieties of Chile?
2) Aconcagua Region
3) Central Valley
4) Southern Region
What are the 4 key regions of Chile from north to south?
What are the 3 subregions of Coquimbo from north to south?
3) San Antonio
What are the 3 subregions of Aconcagua from north to south?
2) Rapel - divided into 2 subzones; Cachapoal and Colchagua
What are the 4 subregions of Chile's Central Valley from north to south? Which of them is split in 2? What are those two subzones?
2) Bio Bio
What are the 3 subzones of Chile's Southern Region from north to south?
2) Sauvignon Blanc
3) Pinot Noir
What are three main grapes of the Casablanca region?
Chardonnay; Limari has garnered a reputation for producing some of Chile's best chardonnay.
What grape variety is Limari known for?
2) San Antonio
This is because the sites are noticeably cooler thanks to morning fogs and afternoon winds that blow off in the ocean.
Name the only two subregions of Chile where white grape plantings exceed red. Why these areas?
Which subregion of the Chile's Central Valley has a reputation for Cabernet Sauvignon with a particularly minty character?
Which subregion of Chile is almost completely surrounded by mountains, where very little coastal influence reaches its main growing area to the south of Santiago.
Warm due to the area being cut off from ocean breezes
Is the climate of Cachapoal warm or cool?
The Southern Region "The wettest region of Chile"
What region of Chile experiences annual rainfall in excess of 1000 millimeters, causing fungal disease to be more widespread?
2) Bio Bio
Which two subregions in Chile are dominated by plantings of Pais and Muscat of Alexandria? Is the output exported or mainly consumed locally?
1) Sauvignon Blanc
Which 2 grape varieties does Elqui have a reputation for?
Coquimbo region as it borders the Atacama Desert and is the most northerly of Chile's wine regions.
Which region of Chile is desert like; very dry and arid?
Which particularly cool area of San Antonio, Chile has gained a great reputation for Sauvignon Blanc?
In which two subregions of Chile is Merlot important?
Which grape variety is key to Aconcagua and Chile's Central Valley (specifically the Cachapoal Zone)?
In which 5 subzones of Chile is Cabernet Sauvignon particularly important?
2) San Antonio
What are the two main regions for Pinot Noir in Chile?
It is well known for full bodied reds, made mainly from Cabernet Sauvignon.
What type of wines is the Colchagua Zone known for?
A DO is a geographical indication based on Chile's political administrative districts. DO on the label of a Chilean wine means that 75% of the grapes used are from the stated DO. It also requires 75% of appropriate grapes used for any varietal or vintage labelling.
What does Denominacion de Origen (DO) indicate in Chile?
1) Rio Negro
All vineyards of Argentina lie 600 meters or more above sea level except for which two regions?
Historically, because of the heat, most vineyards were planted in the pergola system, known locally as parral. This lifted the grapes away from the searing heat close to the ground.
Historically, what type of vine training system was used in Argentina?
New, quality-focused vineyards more commonly use a lower-yielding cordon pruning system.
What type of vine pruning system is currently employed in Argentina?
Yes it is essential in Argentina; both drip and flood irrigation are used.
Is irrigation used in Argentina?
(1) Rio Negro Province (2) Neuquen Province
Name two wine regions that fall in the larger Patagonia Region.
Summer hail which has the potential to destroy 10% of the crop in an average year, although netting of the vines as a protection is becoming more popular.
What is the main environmental challenge experienced in Argentina?
Malbec is now the single most planted grape variety in Argentina, only recently overtaking the less well-known Bonarda.
What is the single most planted grape variety in Argentina? What grape variety did it recently overtake?
3) Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the top 5 red grape varieties of Argentina?
What are the top 3 white grape varieties for Argentina?
1) Salta Province
2) Catamarca Province
3) La Rioja Province
4) San Juan Province
5) Mendoza Province
6) Neuquen Province
7) Rio Negro Province
What are the 7 key regions of Argentina from north to south?
The Cafayate Region lies at 1750 to 3111 meters above sea level; making it the world's highest vineyard area. Cafayate is located in the Salta Province of Argentina.
What is the worlds highest vineyard area? Where is it located?
What is the dominant grape of the Cafayate Region?
Catamarca is very arid and so much of the production is pest-free and organic.
Is Catamarca a wet or dry region? How does this impact the wines produced?
To avoid confusion with the Rioja region of Spain, what labelling term is used for Argentinian wines from the La Rioja province?
What three grape varieties dominate in the La Rioja Province?
La Rioja; most of these inexpensive bulk wines are being made by the La Riojana co-operative.
Which region of Argentina has given over most of their vineyards to the production of inexpensive bulk wines?
San Juan as the hot and arid conditions (hotter and more arid than in Mendoza) are great for Syrah.
Which is perhaps the best province in Argentina for Syrah? Why?
Which province of Argentina accounts for over 70% of all wine produced in the country?
The vineyards of Mendoza are protected from rain in the west by the huge Andes Mountains and from the east by the Argentine Pampas.
What two environmental factors help to shield the province of Mendoza from rain?
1) Snow-melt water from the mountains
2) High altitude
Both are important but it is altitude that leads to decreased overall temperature, increased diurnal range, and increased sunlight intensity that is the defining feature of Mendoza's wines.
Which two things give life to the area of Mendoza and make it possible to produce high-quality grapes?
Lujan de Cuyo
Though Mendoza has no official geographical subdivision, what appellation was created in the province in 1993?