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29 terms

Chapter 3: Biochemistry

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Organic compound
Primarily made of carbon atoms.
Functional group
Clusters of atoms.
Monomer
Smaller, simpler molecules that build carbon compounds.
Polymer
Molecule that consists of repeated, linked units.
Macromolecule
Large polymers.
Condensation reaction
Monomers link to form polymers through this chemical reaction.
Hydrolysis
Water is used to break down a polymer.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Energy is available to cells in the form of this compound that stores a large amount of energy in its overall structure.
Carbohydrate
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
Monosaccharide
A monomer of a carbohydrate.
Disaccharide
Two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form this double sugar.
Polysaccharide
Complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
Protein
Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Amino acid
Proteins are formed from the linkage of these monomers.
Peptide bond
In a condensation reaction, the two amino acids form a covalent bond called this.
Polypeptide
Amino acids form these very long chains.
Enzyme
RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.
Substrate
The reactant being catalyzed.
Active site
The enzyme's folds.
Lipid
Large, nonpolar organic molecules.
Fatty acid
Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids.
Triglyceride
Composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol.
Phospholipid
Have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol.
Wax
Type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain.
Steroid
Molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.
Nucleic acid
Large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins.
Nucleotide
Made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base.