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Chapter 3: Biochemistry
Primarily made of carbon atoms.
Clusters of atoms.
Smaller, simpler molecules that build carbon compounds.
Molecule that consists of repeated, linked units.
Monomers link to form polymers through this chemical reaction.
Water is used to break down a polymer.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Energy is available to cells in the form of this compound that stores a large amount of energy in its overall structure.
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.
A monomer of a carbohydrate.
Two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form this double sugar.
Complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.
Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Proteins are formed from the linkage of these monomers.
In a condensation reaction, the two amino acids form a covalent bond called this.
Amino acids form these very long chains.
RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.
The reactant being catalyzed.
The enzyme's folds.
Large, nonpolar organic molecules.
Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids.
Composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol.
Have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol.
Type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain.
Molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.
Large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins.
Made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base.