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a living thing.


the basic building blocks of all organisms. Within cells the basic functions of organisms (converting food into energy and getting rid of waste) are carried out.


a collection of similar cells that work together to perform a function.


the parts of a cell.


the job that structures are designed to do.


"little organs" or structures (parts) within a cell that carry out specific functions (jobs) that keep the cell alive.


houses the chromosomes and DNA that direct cell activity, found in plant and animal cells.

nuclear membrane

surrounds and protects the nucleus, functions to allow certain materials in and out of the nucleus, found in plant and animal cells.

cell membrane

thin outer layer of cell that functions like a gatekeeper allowing certain materials in and out of the cell, found in plant and animal cells


gel-like fluid that fills the space in between the organelles, found in plant and animal cells


genetic structures made of DNA that contain information used to direct cell activity and make new cells, functions like a computer hard drive, found in plant and animal cells.


fluid-filled structures that temporarily hold substances needed by the cell, functions like a storage tank, found in plant and animals cells but bigger in plant cells.


use oxygen and glucose to transform the energy in food to a form the cell can use through a process called cellular respiration, functions like the power plant of the cell, found in plant and animal cells.

cell wall

tough outer barrier that protects plant cells and give them shape, functions like the security fence, found only in plant cells.


structures in a plant cell that make glucose and oxygen, function like solar panels, found only in plant cells.


green pigment that captures energy of sunlight and through a chemical reaction (photosynthesis) makes food for the plant, found only in plant cells.


attached to endoplasmic reticulum and make copies of proteins for a cell, found in both plant and animal cells


break down waste material inside a cell, found in animal cells only.

cellular respiration

in the mitochondria of a cell O2 is chemically combined with glucose (sugar) to release energy (ATP), CO2, and H2O. Happens in plant and animal cells.


chemical reaction that combines water and carbon dioxide to make glucose - the simple sugar plants use as food, happens only in plant cells.


all the organisms that live in an area together with the nonliving things in the environment.


a group of organisms that can mate and produce offspring that in turn can produce more offspring.


all the members of a species living in a particular area at a particular time.


all the populations sharing a specific area or region.


structure, behavior, or other trait in an organism that helps it to survive in its environment.


a close relationship between two species.


a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit.


a type of symbiosis in which one species benefits while the other seems to be unaffected.


a type of symbiosis that occurs when an organism called a parasite feeds on the cells, tissues, or fluids of another organism call a host.


organism that supports a parasite.


use the energy of the sun to produce their own food (plants).


any organism that gets its food by eating other organisms.


organism that feed on the remains or wastes of other organisms.


eat the remains of organisms left behind by other animals.

Food Chain

traces the path of energy as it moves from one organism to the next in an ecosystem.

Food Web

a system of several overlapping food chains.

Energy Pyramid

diagram that shows the flow of energy through a food chain.


chemical process by which plants use light energy to make sugar from water and carbon dioxide.

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