TOK Midterm

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Terms in this set (36)
circular reasoningan argument that commits the logical fallacy of assuming what it is attempting to prove. the conclusion of the argument is essentially the same as one of the premises in the argument - it restates than proves and thus goes in a circleequivocationthe misleading use of a term with more than one meaning or sensefalse analogya concept wherein the comparison that has been made is faulty and fails in the attempt to accurately compare the twofalse dilemma-binary or black and white thinking -believing that there are two and only two mutually exclusive options (which is untrue)hasty generalizationdrawing a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enoughloaded questionsa question which contains a controversial or unjustified assumptionpost hoc ergo propter hoc- since that event followed this one, that event must be caused by this one - correlation not causationslippery slopeoccurs when a person asserts that some event must inevitable follow from another without any rational argument or demonstrable mechanism for the inevitability of the event in questionspecial pleadingfallacy in which a person suggests that an exception to a rule, law, etc. should be made in their specific casecharacteristics of language- rule governed - intended - creative and changingproblems with translations- vagueness and ambiguity - figurative language - punctuationthe language we can use to shape our thoughts in negative ways- labels -stereotypespeople can deliberately use language to deceive or manipulate us by using...- emotionally-laden language - passive voice - weasel words - evasion - big words or jargon - propagandawhy are perfect translations impossible?- context - untranslatable words - idiomssome translations are better than others because...- faithfulness - comprehensibility - back translationdeductive reasoningthe process of going from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusioninductive reasoningreasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying strong evidence for the truth of the conclusionpremisea statement that is (assumed to be) truesyllogismsa kind of logical statement that applies deductive reasoning to arrive to a conclusion based on two premises that are asserted or assumed to be truevalidmeans the syllogism was set up in a logically correct mannertruethe premises and conclusions are actually trueenthymemes- like a syllogism, but with an unstated premise - keep at least one of the premises or conclusions unstatedhuman sciences as an AOKhuman sciences attempt to study human behavior in a systematic wayoperationalizationthe process of defining a fuzzy concept so as to make the concept clearly measurable and to understand it in terms and empirical observationshistory as an AOKhistory that gets taught and written about - the history worthy of studypseudo-historya pejorative term applied to a type of historical revisionism often involving sensational claims whose acceptance would require rewriting a significant amount of commonly accepted, and based on methods that are not standard usually for personal or political purposes