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What in the Sutton Hoo burial ceremony did Christianity forbid?


What advantages did feudalism offer the nobles

Military support and goods or produce

What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs?

Use of land and protection

Why did Europe's Christians embark on pilgrimages?

To atone for their sins

What pilgrimage destination was most difficult to reach?


Why was the wergeld (life-price) of a thane higher than that of a thrall?

Thralls were slaves

What literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery?


Why is Beowulf considered an English poem even through its events take place in Scandinavia?

It is written in Old English

Why does Beowulf travel from Denmark to Sweden?

To kill the monster Grendel

What was the main task of Christian missionaries in England?

To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God

Why was the Book of Kells moved from Iona off the Scottish coast to Kells in Ireland?

.To protect it from Vikings threatening the Scottish coast

Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor?

For Christianizing the people of his vast empire

In the Song of Roland, why are the Saracens able to ambush Roland's army?

Roland is betrayed by Ganelon

What leads to Roland's death in the Song of Roland?

His sense of pride

Why did Charlemagne insist upon a Christian education for his people?

To gain more favor from Pope Leo



Why was "Gothic" as applied to France's new architecture originally a derogatory term?

B) The Goths had destroyed classical traditions

Why was light vital to Saint Denis's design?

A) It is the physical and material manifestation of God

Why was Saint Denis not completed during Suger's lifetime?

C) Louis VII left for the Crusades and withdrew funding

Why were so many of the cathedrals called Notre Dame ("Our Lady")?

D) They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven

What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194?

B) Mary's tunic and a window portraying her

Why did the Gothic cathedrals contain stained-glass programs?

A) To tell Bible stories to a mostly illiterate audience

Why is the Jesse tree a common stained-glass motif?

D) It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David

Which of the following innovations was key in Gothic architecture?

C) Rib vaulting

Why did the Gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?

B) To help spread out the weight of the vaults

What musical instrument became popular in the cathedrals?

A) The organ

Where was the first university founded?

D) Bologna, Italy

On whose method did Peter Abelard base his teaching?

C) Socrates

On whose relationship was the popular poem the Roman de la Rose based?

A) Peter Abelard and Heloise

What two subjects did Scholasticism seek to reconcile?

A) Christian faith and classical reason





What 150-year time period in Italy did nineteenth-century historians label the Renaissance?

B) Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth

What were the Renaissance humanists aiming to understand?

C) The nature of humanity and its relationship to the natural world

Why in 1401 did the Florentines sponsor a competition?

A) To choose a designer for the city's baptistery doors

What biblical scene were the baptistery-design entrants to create?

C) The Sacrifice of Isaac

Why are Ghiberti's doors known as the Gates of Paradise?

C) They open onto the paradiso, the area in front of the cathedral

Which is the only panel on the Baptistery doors to represent a single event?

D) Meeting of Solomon and Sheba

Who won the competition to create a dome for Florence Cathedral?

B) Filippo Brunelleschi

How did Brunelleschi construct his dome without temporary wooden scaffolding?

D) The dome's ribs function as support, so scaffolding is part of the design

Why probably did Brunelleschi use nine circles of horizontal ribs for the dome?

A) As the reverse of Dante's nine circles of hell

Why does Masaccio place the vanishing point in The Tribute Money behind Christ's head?

D) To identify Christ as the fresco's most important figure

What distinction does Donatello's David hold?

B) The first life-size freestanding male nude since antiquity

Why did Donatello depict his David as a young adolescent?

C) To symbolize Florence's youthful vitality and ability to conquer tyrants

Why were the Medici the most powerful family in Florence from 1418-1494?

...A) They were bankers to the papacy

Why did Cosimo de' Medici found the Platonic Academy in Florence?

C) To provide a place for the study and discussion of Plato's works

Why did Lorenzo de' Medici invite the young Michelangelo Buonarroti to live in his palace?

...B) Lorenzo recognized Michelangelo's artistic promise

Why did Lorenzo de' Medici prefer frottole sung in Italian, not Greek or Latin?

...A) Italian was the most beautiful of languages for music

According to Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man, what great gift makes humans "the most fortunate of living things"?

C) Free will

Why did Piero Della Francesca paint Federigo de Montefeltro, duke of Urbino, in profile?

C) Federigo was missing an eye and part of his nose

What implicit lesson does Mantega's Camera Picta send to Ludovico Gonzaga, ruler of Mantua?

D) A ruler always is in the public eye

Why was Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, so interested in Leonardo da Vinci?

...A) Leonardo could design great machines of war for him

Why is Leonardo's Last Supper fresco in very bad shape today?

B) Leonardo painted dry plaster with oil, which flakes off

Why did the Florentines drive the Medici family from the city in 1494?

C) Piero de Medici formed an unpopular alliance with the French king

Why did Medici supporters hurl stones at Michelangelo's David as it was moved through the streets?

...D) They understood David's symbolism of the city standing up to tyrants

Why does Michelangelo's Moses have horns?

A) A mistranslation of the Bible from Hebrew to Latin

What is meant by terribilitá, a trademark of many of Michelangelo's works?

D) A terrifying and awesome force



Why did the late 14th-century popes refuse to live in Rome?


When the papacy returned to Rome in 1420, why did the popes consider restoring the city their sacred duty?

A) To move visitors with extraordinary sights

Why did Michelangelo leave Florence for Rome in 1505?

B) Pope Julius II commanded him to come to Rome

What was Michelangelo's first commission in Rome?

C) A statue of Bacchus

Why did Michelangelo present Mary in his Pietà as young and beautiful instead of middle-aged?

D) To make her a timeless image of purity and chastity

Why did Pope Julius II wish to identify himself with Julius Caesar?

A) Like Caesar, he wanted to defeat the hated French

Why did the pope elected in 1503 take the name Julius?

C) To emphasize his imperial authority

On which Greek's work did Vitruvius base his theory of proportion?

B) Polyclitus

According to the ancient Roman Vitruvius, what standard should the ideal human body be eight times the size?

D) The head

What musical interval corresponds with Vitruvius's theory of proportion?

A) Octave

What Leonardo work illustrates Vitruvius's ideas of human and geometric perfection of proportion and symmetry?

C) Vitruvian Man

Why did Bramante apply the Vitruvian circle inscribed with a square to his church designs?

To symbolize the perfection of God

Why were the people eager to buy the indulgences that Julius II sold to finance the St. Peter's project?

A) They wanted to shorten their stay in purgatory

Why did Michelangelo place the Drunkenness of Noah as the first scene the viewer sees upon entering the Sistine Chapel?

C) To remind them of their own frailty

Why did Michelangelo place the Separation of Light from Darkness at the Sistine Chapel's far end over the altar?

A) To symbolize the viewers' distance from creation's goodness and truth

Which of the following is not one of the four major areas of humanist learning that Julius II commissioned Raphael to paint on the Vatican's Stanza della Segnatura?


Why in the School of Athens does Aristotle direct his palm down?

C) To indicate that knowledge comes from study of the natural world

Upon whom did Raphael model his portrait of Heraclitus, the brooding, despairing philosopher?

D) Michelangelo

What did Niccolò Machiavelli study as inspiration for The Prince?

B) Roman rulers and citizens

In which Florence ruler did Machiavelli see the role model for his perfect prince?

C) Cesare Borgia

Why did Machiavelli claim that it was better for a prince to be feared, not loved?

D) Fear is a stronger motivator

Who was permitted to join a Venetian scuole?

B) Anyone regardless of political group or class

Why did Venetian artists begin using oil instead of tempera paint

C) Oil gave their work more luminosity and realistic details

Why is the Villa La Rotunda considered by many to be Andrea Palladio's masterpiece?

A) Its design is perfectly symmetrical

According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did Titian become the most sought-after painter in Europe?

C) His portraits revealed the subjects' character and personality

Why in the School of Athens does Plato point toward the heavens?

B) It's the realm of ideal forms



In what area of Italy are Siena and Florence located?


Why did Siena experience population growth after 1125?

A) Its free commune status offered freedom from feudalism

Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power?

A) Siena was an important manufacturing city

Why by the end of the fourteenth century did Florence become an important banking city?

C) The Pope conferred Siena's papal banking privileges on Florence

What was the Florentine bankers' most important invention?

C) Europe's first single currency

Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government?

A) Only guild members

Why is the Virgin Mary's crown in Simone Martini's Maestrá significant?

A) It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular queen

In the Arena Chapel frescoes, what is Giotto the first artist since antiquity to depict?

A) People from behind

Why is the camel in Giotto's Adoration of the Magi not exactly realistic?

D) It has blue eyes

What is an advantage of the buon fresco (paint on wet plaster) technique?

C) The paint becomes part of the wall

Why does Dante place Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in the lowest level of his hell?

B) They were traitors

Why does Virgil guide Dante through Hell and Purgatory?

B) Virgil represented the embodiment of reason

Why did the flagellants believe Europe was devastated by plague?

A) God's wrath against human sins

What literary trend does Boccaccio's Decameron introduce into Western literature?

D) Social realism

What literary form did Petrarch perfect?

C) Italian sonnet

In what language did Chaucer write his Tales?

D) Middle English

Why did Christine de Pizan become the first female professional writer in European history?

A) A widow, she needed to support her family

Why were England and France fighting in the Hundred Years' War?

C) England wanted to claim Normandy from the French

What was the main charge for which Joan of Arc was tried and executed?

D) Cross-dressing

According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what was a positive effect of the bubonic plague?

B) Per capita wealth increased



Why did Bruges become the financial capital of the North?

B) It was home to the Medici banking interests in the region

What physical attribute provided Bruges its status as an important trade center?

A) Its waterway that led from a lock on the North Sea

Why did Antwerp overtake Bruges in importance by the middle of the fifteenth century?

C) Bruges' harbor became blocked by silt

Unlike in Renaissance Italy, patronage of artists in the northern cities came from what source?

D) The merchant class

What is a particularly distinctive feature of Robert Campin's Mérode Altarpiece?

B) Its setting the Annunciation in an ordinary, middle-class Flemish home

Why did Flemish painters use oil instead of the tempera paint favored by the Italian Renaissance painters?

A) To create layers of paint that reflected light

In the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck's depiction of Adam and Eve holds what distinction?

C) The largest painted nudes since antiquity

Who is reflected in the mirror in Jan van Eyck's double portrait Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami?

D) Jan van Eyck

Characteristic of all northern painting of this time, Roger van der Weyden's Descent from the Cross displays tension between what?

D) Material well-being and spiritual narrative

What is an advantage of a polyptych over a diptych or a triptych?

C) A polyptych allowed for different arrangements

Hieronymus Bosch's famous triptych, the Garden of Earthly Delights, seems intended for what purpose?

A) To be a conversation piece

What question does Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights seem to ask the viewers to ponder?

D) What might the world be like if the fall had never happened

In her Heptameron, Marguerite de Navarre expressed the northern pessimism and doubt about what institution?

C) The Church

What was a major advantage of tapestries as decorations?

B) They were highly transportable

Why were Morris dancing and its musical equivalent, the madrigal, so popular in the north?

D) They provided light-hearted and frivolous entertainment to all the classes

Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece underscores what northern European preoccupation?

A) Death

Heinrich Krämer's Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) set forth what attitude about women?

C) They were cunning and deceitful

What trend in German culture did artist Albrecht Dürer represent?

B) Humanism

In his landscape study The Large Turf, Albrecht Dürer was able to blend his northern interest in minute detail with what Italian Renaissance interest?

D) The phenomenon of the natural world

As discussed in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what was the irony of monk and humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus?

B) He opposed the Church's excesses yet loved beauty and art



Why did Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's own troops sack Rome in 1527?

C) He was unable to pay their wages

What classical literary genre did Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More revive?

A) Satire

Why does Erasmus attack Church officials in his In Praise of Folly?

D) For selling pardons and indulgences

Why did Luther reject the Church's doctrine that good deeds and work led to salvation?

C) He believed that faith alone would provide salvation

What was at the heart of Luther's outrage at the Church's "salvation for sale"?

A) Class inequity and injustice

What did Luther claim gave him the right to post his 95 Theses on the Wittenberg church door?

B) Academic freedom

Why was Luther's translation of the New Testament into vernacular German so significant?

B) People no longer had to depend on the Church for biblical interpretation

Why did Luther rebel against Church mandate about celibacy for those in a religious vocation?

A) Faith equalized everyone, including the clergy

Why was Thomas Müntzer so critical of Martin Luther during the Peasant War?

B) Luther refused to support the peasants' rebellion

What did John Calvin mean by "predestination"?

C) God ordains salvation for certain people at birth

Why was mid-sixteenth century Geneva known as "a paradise for women"?

B) Geneva men who beat their wives were severely punished

Why in his later years did Luther claim that the Jews were a race rejected by God?

D) Luther accused Jews of denying Christ and crucifying him

What was the first major work Gutenberg published using his printing press?

D) The Forty-Two Line Bible

After the advent of the printing press, who became Europe's best-selling author?

A) Martin Luther

Why did the Roman Catholic Church condemn François Rabelais's Gargantua and Pantagruel?

B) For attacking medieval theology's dogmas and sacraments

Why did Michel de Montaigne's wealthy father send him away at birth to be raised by peasants?

C) So he would develop love and respect for common people

What style of writing for trying out ideas did Montaigne invent?

A) The personal essay

What process did Dürer use in Melancholia I to create deeper and darker shadows?

A) Stippling



Why did Spain institute an Inquisition in 1478?

B) To convert all non-Christian Spaniards

What does the Italian word maniera, from which Mannerist derives, mean?

D) Style

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