Unit 3 Biology Terms - Molecules of Life
Biology terms for Unit 3
Terms in this set (47)
The region of an enzyme molecule which provides the site for attachment of molecules of substrate.
the transport of molecules across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient.
an energy releasing cellular reaction which requires oxygen. Occurs in mitochrondria.
small molecules which are the building blocks for proteins. All contain an amino group and carboxylic acid.
a reaction in which the cell must expend energy for the reaction to proceed.
an energy releasing cellular reaction which doesn't require oxygen. Occurs in cytosol of cells.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
a portable energy source which moves about the cell to anywhere it is required.
organisms which manufacture their own organic carbon compounds from inorganic material.
large biological molecules.
there is a net gain of energy from the reaction.
any chemical which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being used up.
variations in cell structure which are related to function.
enzymes which promote the bending and folding of a polypeptide chain to produce a protein's tertiary structure.
organisms which derive energy from chemicals for use in the manufacture of organic molecules.
organic molcules which act as cofactors. Most are carrier molecules.
a molecule which competes with the substrate by binding temporarily to an enzyme's active site.
chemical bonds in which atoms share electrons.
membrane, organelles and cytosol together. All of the cell except the nucleus.
the semi-fluid matrix in which cellular organelles are suspended.
to destroy the secondary and/or tertiary protein structure, making the protein non-functional.
the tendency of particles of gases, lipids and solutes to disperse randomly and fill space.
protein molecule which are biological catalysts. Made by cells in the ribosomes.
a complex formed when an enzyme combines with substrate (reactant) during a reaction.
diffusion of molecules and ions from an area of high concerntration to low through channels by embedded protein molecules.
a segment of DNA which determines the structure of a protein.
first step in aerobic/anaerobic respiration. Glucose (6 carbon molecule is) split into 2 pyruvate.
a molecule formed when a protein is chemically combined with a carbohydrate sub-unit.
organisms which rely on consuming an external source of organic molecules.
are relatively weak bonds formed by the attraction between polar molecules.
has a higher solute concentration than the cell.
has a lower concentration of solutes than the cell.
chemical bonds which occur between ions, particles which have an electrical charge.
has a solute concentration the same as intracellar fluid.
middle step in aerobic respiration. Pyruvate molecules broken down and 3 carbon dioxide molecules formed. Some ATP and loaded acceptors are formed.
mRNA (messenger RNA)
molecule, copied from DNA, which leaves the nucleus and travels in the cytosol to the ribosomes.
molecule that binds temporarily with an enzyme in a part of the molecule other than the active site. Inhibits enzyme action by altering shape of molecule.
monomer units of nucleic acids.
cellular structures that carry out a specific funtion. Most membrane bound, ribosomes not.
net movement of water molecules, across a differentially permeable membrane, from an area in which WATER is in high concentration to an area in which WATER is in low concentration.
the conversion of light energy to stored chemical energy in glucose molecules. Light dependant and light independant stages.
organisms which use light as an energy source for production of organic molecules.
the amino acid sequence of a protein.
smallest living cells. Have cell membrane, cytosol, no nuclear membrane, just one circular chromosome and lack membrane bound organelles.
the complete complement of an organism's proteins.
the study of an organism's proteins.
small uncharged particles and lipid soluble molecules diffuse from an area of high concentration to one of low through the phospholipid bilayer of cells.
small, temporary, membrane bound structures which transport material around the cell.
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